New Covenant Vs. Covenant for a Kingdom

The expression “new covenant” appears only once in the Old Testament. The scripture and its context is:

Jeremiah 31:27 Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of animal.
Jeremiah 31:28 It shall happen that, like as I have watched over them to pluck up and to break down and to overthrow and to destroy and to afflict, so will I watch over them to build and to plant, says Yahweh.
Jeremiah 31:29 In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge.
Jeremiah 31:30 But everyone shall die for his own iniquity: every man who eats the sour grapes, his teeth shall be set on edge.
Jeremiah 31:31 Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah:
Jeremiah 31:32 not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they broke, although I was a husband to them, says Yahweh.
Jeremiah 31:33 But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says Yahweh: I will put my law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people:
Jeremiah 31:34 and they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know Yahweh; for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says Yahweh: for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more.

Many fail to comprehend that how the New Covenant, if it is not active now, can be active on the new creature so as to result in sanctification (consecration). The terminology often used would either result in the thought that the new creature is not under the New Covenant, or that if he is under the New Covenant, then the New Covenant must be active now. From these two extremes other wrong conclusions are developed.

Nevertheless, everything pertaining the new creation belongs to the age to come, not this present evil age. When Paul wrote,  “Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old things have passed away. Behold, they have become new” (2 Corinthians 5:17), he was saying that the new creation is related to the passing away of the present evil age, the present heavens and earth, and the coming age when all things are made new. (Isaiah 65:17; Matthew 5:18; 24:35; Mark 31:31; Luke 21:33; 2 Peter 3:10,13; Revelation 21:1-5) That New Heavens and New Earth are not now, but belong to the “age to come.”

He will receive one hundred times now in this time, houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life. — Mark 10:30.

Who will not receive many times more in this time, and in the world [age] to come, eternal life.” — Luke 18:30.

That “age to come” had not yet come when the book of Hebrews was written: “concerning those who were once enlightened and tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Spirit,  and tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the age to come.” — Hebrews 6:4,5.

This last scripture shows that the new creature has tasted “the powers of the age to come.” It is in that age to come that the New Covenant becomes active to the world, but those who are chosen out this world become new creatures by the power of the age to come, making them belong to the day.

The “age” still is not fully with us, since the heathen of the earth are still being deceived by Satan (Revelation 20:3), and the promised blessings of the heathen are not now being seen. (Genesis 22:18) It is still true that God is choosing people out of the corrupted world as his sons, who then are no longer of the corrupted world (John 15:19), thus the corrupted world (Romans 5:12; 8:21; 2 Peter 1:4) is still in existence, and has not yet passed away. (1 Corinthians 17:31; John 2:17

Once the present heavens and earth have passed away, the New Covenant becomes operative through Israel. — Jeremiah 31:31.

Therefore the of prophecy of the new covenant, as such, actually belongs to the “age to come”, when it will be true that everyone who dies will die for his own iniquity, not the sin of Adam or parents. (Ezekiel 18:2,3) Likewise, the covenant is made with Israel and Judah. Some claim that the covenant is actually concluded with the Israel of faith, the Christian church, not fleshly Israel. If this were true, how is it to be said of the Israel of faith, that this “new covenant” is “not according to the covenant I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt”? True, a few of those who belong to the Gospel Age church have a Jewish heritage by flesh, but most are not. Most Christians have never been under the Law of Moses so that it could be said of them: “my covenant they broke”. This can only apply to fleshly Israel, not the Israel of faith.

Ezekiel 16 likewise depicts the same time, and the same covenant. There Yahweh speaks to Jerusalem (representing all of Israel), and compares her with her sisters, Sodom and Samaria. He speaks of the day of resurrection, saying: “And I will bring back their captive ones [from the captivity of death], the captive ones of Sodom and her daughters, and the captive ones of Samaria and her daughters, and the captive ones of your captives in the midst of them.” (Ezekiel 16:53, Restoration Light Improved Version, RLIV) Yahweh further says to them: “And your sisters, Sodom and her daughters, will return to their former estate [being returned to life]; and Samaria and her daughters will return to their former estate; and you and your daughters will return to your former estate.” (Ezekiel 16:55) To this day, the people of Sodom have remained in the realm of death. They have in no wise been returned to their former estate. This can only be accomplished by their resurrection from the dead, when they are to be raised in the resurrection of the unjust.

What does this have to do with the New Covenant? Yahweh continues to speak to Jerusalem: “Nevertheless I will remember my covenant with you in the days of your youth, and I will establish an everlasting covenant with you.” (Ezekiel 16:60) Here he speaks of two different covenants, the one established with Israel in the days of her youth, and another covenant, a future covenant. This future covenant is not fulfilled with the Gospel Age church, as it cannot be said of the Gospel Age church that God will remember his covenant (the covenant through Moses) with them. Yahweh further says to Jerusalem: “Then you will remember your ways, and be ashamed, when you receive your sisters, your elder and your younger; and I will give them unto you as daughters, but not by your covenant.” (Ezekiel 16:61) The covenant made with Israel through Moses is again referred to, and Yahweh tells Jerusalem that this coming blessing will not be by means of that covenant. Again, we note that this is not speaking of the Gospel Age Israel of faith, since it could not be said to the Israel of faith that the blessings foretold would be “not by your covenant”.

And Yahweh states to Jerusalem: “And I will establish my covenant with you; and you will know that I am Yahweh; that you may remember, and be confounded, and never open your mouth any more, because of your shame, when I have forgiven your for all that you have done.” (Ezekiel 16:62,63) It should be apparent that the covenant being spoken of is the same covenant spoken of in Jeremiah 31:31. It should be further apparent that this covenant is established with the same Israel that had been under the Law Covenant through Moses.

Does this mean that the Gospel Age believers receive no benefit from the New Covenant? No, but we need to examine some scriptures to see how the New Covenant is applied to the Gospel Age believers.

In the Gospels, we find the expression “new covenant” used in Luke 22:20, where Jesus speaks of such at his last meal. He took the cup, and stated to his disciples: “This cup means the new covenant in my blood which is poured out for you.” So it is apparent that the disciples receive a benefit from the “new covenant” as represented in the blood of Jesus, which blood, Jesus said, was poured out for them.

So how does the Gospel Age church obtain these benefits, if the New Covenant is actually made with Israel in the age to come? They do this by being reckoned, imputed as justified, as though in the age to come, as though made alive in the resurrection day, counted as children of that day when the knowledge of Yahweh will cover the earth, and no longer children of this condemned age of darkness. (1 Thessalonians 5:5) Those called in this age receive the firstfruits of spirit of the age to come. (Romans 8:23; Hebrews 6:5; James 1:18) The Christian’s baptism is a symbol of being baptized into Jesus’ death so as to appropriate the benefits of the death of Christ (Romans 6:3); this is so in that one receives the firstfruits of the spirit — as a earnest (that which in purchases is given as a pledge or down payment that the full amount will subsequently be paid) — the spiritual benefits of the ransom, the power of the age to come, in this age. — Romans 8:23; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 5:5; Ephesians 1:13,14; Hebrews 6:5.

The holy spirit is given now as a down payment, or earnest of the inheritance (2 Corinthians 1:22; 5:5), declares that the inheritance in the kingdom will be much more than is now obtained through the spirit. The spirit is received by means of obtaining the powers of the age to come (Hebrews 6:5), in which age to come the holy spirit will be poured out on all flesh. (Joel 2:28; Isaiah 40:5) The believer today receives the “firstfruits” of the spirit (Romans 8:23) in anticipation of the coming time when they will be revealed to the creation and the creation will also be able to delivered from the bondage of present-day corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. (Romans 8:21) The church is a kind of firstfruits of God’s creatures (James 1:18), indicating the after fruits yet to come in the next age, when “the earth will be full of the knowledge of Yahweh, as the waters cover the sea.” (Isaiah 11:9, RLIV) The outpouring of holy spirit on believers in this age is but a prelude to the actual fulfillment of Joel’s prophecy in the age to come. — Acts 2:16-21.

It is thus by partaking of that which belongs to age to come, the benefits of the New Covenant, that those called in this age receive the benefits of that covenant.

Now, concerning the covenant for a kingdom. This refers to Luke 22:29. Due to the way this verse is translated in most translations, most would hardly know that a covenant is being spoken of.

And I covenant unto you – as my Father hath covenanted unto me – a kingdom. — Luke 22:29, Rotherham.

This covenanting is evidently a reference to the Abrahamic/Davidic “seed” Covenant, which Jesus extends to his followers: Genesis 9:9; 12:3,7; 17:7,19; 21:12; 2 Samuel 7:11-17; 22:51; Psalm 18:50; 89:1-4,26-37; Isaiah 9:6,7; Jeremiah 23:5,6; Ezekiel 34:23,24; Daniel 7:22,27; Amos 9:11; John 7:42; Acts 13:22,23; Galatians 3:16,27,29.

Thus, directly, the church’s covenant is actually with Jesus, and through him the Father’s covenant is applied to the church. This covenant is not the “new covenant”, but is a covenant that existed 430 years before the Law Covenant, and which Paul applies to Christ, and all who belong to Christ, the sons of Abraham by faith. — Galatians 3:7,16,17,26-29.

The “New Covenant” covers the condemnation of sin in Adam, which is applied to all who are dying in Adam. The “covenant for a kingdom” is the everlasting kingdom, a rulership with Jesus, which rulership will benefit the all families of the earth in the future under the New Covenant, but not all the families of the earth participate in the covenant for a kingdom.

See our study on Jeremiah 31

See also David Christiansen’s study on Jeremiah 31


Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible – USA
[amazon-element asin=”1598566938″ fields=”Author,Binding,NumberOfPages,ListPrice,LowestNewPrice,LowestUsedPrice,” labels=”Author::Author:,Binding::Binding:,NumberOfPages::Number of Pages:,ListPrice::List Price:,LowestNewPrice::New From:,LowestUsedPrice::Used From:” msg_instock=”In Stock”]

Canada * United Kingdom

[amazon-element asin=”1598566938″ fields=”desc” labels=”desc::Product Description:”]

New Covenant (RL Site Search)

Below are links to Google searches for “new covenant” for both the “rlbible.com” and the “reslight.net” sites. The results are not perfect, and may contain comments by others or from sites that have linked to our sites.

Click Here to search for “new covenant” with “rlbible.com”.

Click Here for search for “new covenant” with “reslight.net”.

Matthew 26:28


God’s Covenants (Herald Links)

The following links are written by Bible Students. While we agree with most of what is said, we do not necessarily agree with all that is said.

January/February 2010:

In the Beginning (God’s Covenants) Audio MP3

Obey and Live Audio MP3
The first covenant was between God and Adam. — Genesis 2:16,17

The Rainbow Covenant Audio MP3 — Genesis 9:16
God promised there would never be another flood.

The Harmony of the Covenants Audio MP3
God’s covenants work together to provide man’s salvation.

All the Nations Shall Be Blessed Audio MP3 – Abrahamic Covenant; Genesis 22:17.
God’s covenant with Abraham described his entire plan of salvation.

What Was the Purpose of the Law? Audio MP3 — Galatians 3:24.
The Law Covenant kept Israel a separated people.

The Barren One Will Rejoice Audio MP3 – Galatians 4:28.

I Will Make a New Covenant Audio MP3 – Jeremiah 31:31.
The New Covenant provides blessings for everyone.

The Prophecies and Promises of Jeremiah 31 Audio MP3
Jeremiah 31 contains promises of future blessing for Israel and all mankind.

<><><><><><><><><>

Other Links:

A New CovenantConsiders the Old and New Testament use of this term, and analyzes some of the puzzling details regarding this covenant. – Jeremiah 31:31.

Noah’s Covenant and the Promise Covenant – Isaiah 54:9.


Jeremiah 31

Jeremiah 31:1 At that time, says Yahweh, will I be the God of all the families of Israel, and they shall be my people.

This scripture refers back to the “time” mentioned in Jeremiah 30:24, which reads: “The fierce anger of Yahweh shall not return, until he has executed, and until he have performed the intents of his heart: in the latter days you shall understand it.”

At that time — refers to the “latter days” just spoken of in Jeremiah 30:24, specifically the time when Israel will understand. Before Israel understands, however, Yahweh’s anger will have passed. That time of understanding is in the age to come, in the days of regeneration, that Jesus spoke of. (Matthew 19:28) Today, it is still true that ‘Yahweh has poured out on Israel the spirit of deep sleep, and has closed Israel’s eyes.’ (Isaiah 6:9; 29:10; Matthew 13:14,15; John 12:39,40; Acts 20:25-27; Romans 11:7-11) However, Isaiah prophecies: “In that day [the age to come] shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out of obscurity and out of darkness.” (Isaiah 29:18) And while those of Israel who murmur in this age are kept in darkness, in that age to come, we read: “They also who err in spirit shall come to understanding, and those who murmur shall receive instruction.” — Isaiah 29:24.

“I will be the God of all the families of Israel” — Yahweh will, in that age to come, be God of all the tribes, not just the two tribes of Judah. Indeed, he will be God of all Israel who have died, since they will be raised in that day of regneration due to the application of the blood of New Covenant on their behalf. It will in that age to come that “all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, ‘There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob.” — Romans 11:26.

Jeremiah 31:2 Thus says Yahweh, The people who were left of the sword found favor in the wilderness; even Israel, when I went to cause him to rest.

This refers back to the time when Israel left Egypt, in the aftermath of the time when Israel’s sons were being killed and Pharaoh endeavored to kill the Israelites as they left Egypt (Exodus 1:16,22; 2:23; 5:21; 12:37; 14:8-12; 15:9,10; 17:8-13; Acts 13:17), and Yahweh brought Israel out of Egypt, after which they were in the wilderness for forty years. — Numbers 10:33; Deuteronomy 1:30,33; 2:7; 8:2,3,16; 12:9; Nehemiah 9:12-15; Psalms 78:14-16,23-29,52; Psalms 95:11; Psalms 105:37-43; 136:16-24; Isaiah 63:7-14; Jeremiah 2:2; Ezekiel 20:14-17; John 6:31.

Jeremiah 3:3 Yahweh appeared of old to me, [saying], Yes, I have loved you with an everlasting love: therefore with lovingkindness have I drawn you.

This begins with a declaration attributed to Israel, carrying forth the same thought of verse 2. Israel says: “Yahweh appeared of old to me.” — Deuteronomy 7:7-9; 10:15; 33:3,26; Hosea 11:1,4; Malachi 1:2; Romans 3:1,2; 9:13; 1 John 4:19.

In Jeremiah 31:3 we have a beautiful statement of Yahweh’s everlasting love for his people, Israel. How is Yahweh’s love for Israel “everlasting?”  We should note that the “everlasting love” is between Yahweh and the covenant people of Yahweh, the children of Israel. Although Israel, as a whole, went into apostasy time and time again, and remains in apostasy to this day, Paul tells that “the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable.” (Romans 11:29) Thus, Paul tells that the present blindness of Israel is only temporary:

Romans 11:25 – that a hardening in part has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in,
Romans 11:26 and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, “There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob.
Romans 11:27 This is my covenant to them, When I will take away their sins.”
Romans 11:28 Concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But concerning the election, they are beloved for the fathers’ sake.”

Yes, even though God has “given them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day” (Romans 11:8), Israel is still beloved in the eyes of Yahweh “for the fathers’ sake.” Yahweh has not stopped his “everlasting love” for Israel, but Paul relates that their blindness will continue until fullness [full amount, number, plentitude, enough] of the Gentiles are come in (Romans 11:25) Then, the apostle tells us, “All Israel will be saved,” and that this will fulfill the prophecy: “There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. This is my covenant to them, When I will take away their sins.” (Romans 11:26-28) Thus, Yahweh’s love has not ceased toward Israel, for there is still that future time when Israel will receive her Savior, Jesus, and will say, “Blessed in he who comes in the name of Yahweh.” — Matthew 23:39.

Jeremiah 31:4 Again will I build you, and you shall be built, O virgin of Israel: again shall you be adorned with your tambourines, and shall go forth in the dances of those who make merry.

Again will I build you, and you shall be built – Some have claimed that this refers to the rebuilding of Jerusalem after the Israelites returned from their captivity in Babylon. However, that restoration was only temporary, whereas this prophecy goes on to say in Jeremiah 31:40, that this building “shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down any more forever. ” We know that in 70 AD Jerusalem was destroyed.

Some claim that this applies to the church, the ones called out of the world as “God’s building” (1 Corinthians 3:9) made up of “living stones.” (1 Peter 2:5) We believe that Jeremiah’s prophecy concerning the building again of Israel may possibly have a partial application antitypically, but unless one realizes this, the full application of Jeremiah’s prophecy may be lost. By saying “again,” however, this prophecy is shown to apply directly to Israel, for such an expression cannot directly apply to the building of church, for it would imply that the church itself was in need of being rebuilt after some kind of destruction. 1 Corinthians 3:9 and 1 Peter 2:5 do not refer to a rebuilding “again” of the church, but they speak of the first building of the church, which in reality is the only building of the church. The only exception that we can think of is that could possibly apply to the resurrection of the church, but we do not know of any scripture that speaks of the resurrection of the church as a building “again “of the church.

O virgin of Israel – Some have thought the “virgin” here refers to Jesus; however, Jeremiah 18:13 tells us that the “virgin of Israel has done a horrible thing.” Did Jesus ever do a horrible thing?

Actually, Jeremiah 18:13 lets us know that “virgin of Israel” is speaking figuratively of Israel as a virgin. Israel had forgotten Yahweh by burning incense to false gods, walking in the byways of the nations.  –Jeremiah 18:15,16.

******More to follow, Yahweh willing.

5 Again shall you plant vineyards on the mountains of Samaria; the planters shall plant, and shall enjoy [the fruit of it]. 6 For there shall be a day, that the watchmen on the hills of Ephraim shall cry, Arise you, and let us go up to Zion to Yahweh our God. 7 For thus says Yahweh, Sing with gladness for Jacob, and shout for the chief of the nations: publish you, praise you, and say, Yahweh, save your people, the remnant of Israel. 8 Behold, I will bring them from the north country, and gather them from the uttermost parts of the earth, [and] with them the blind and the lame, the woman with child and her who travails with child together: a great company shall they return here. 9 They shall come with weeping; and with petitions will I lead them: I will cause them to walk by rivers of waters, in a straight way in which they shall not stumble; for I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my firstborn.

10 Hear the word of Yahweh, you nations, and declare it in the isles afar off; and say, He who scattered Israel will gather him, and keep him, as shepherd does his flock. 11 For Yahweh has ransomed Jacob, and redeemed him from the hand of him who was stronger than he. 12 They shall come and sing in the height of Zion, and shall flow to the goodness of Yahweh, to the grain, and to the new wine, and to the oil, and to the young of the flock and of the herd: and their soul shall be as a watered garden; and they shall not sorrow any more at all. 13 Then shall the virgin rejoice in the dance, and the young men and the old together; for I will turn their mourning into joy, and will comfort them, and make them rejoice from their sorrow. 14 I will satiate the soul of the priests with fatness, and my people shall be satisfied with my goodness, says Yahweh. 15 Thus says Yahweh: A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation, and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children; she refuses to be comforted for her children, because they are no more. 16 Thus says Yahweh: Refrain your voice from weeping, and your eyes from tears; for your work shall be rewarded, says Yahweh; and they shall come again from the land of the enemy. 17 There is hope for your latter end, says Yahweh; and [your] children shall come again to their own border.

18 I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself [thus], You have chastised me, and I was chastised, as a calf unaccustomed [to the yoke]: turn you me, and I shall be turned; for you are Yahweh my God. 19 Surely after that I was turned, I repented; and after that I was instructed, I struck on my thigh: I was ashamed, yes, even confounded, because I did bear the reproach of my youth. 20 Is Ephraim my dear son? is he a darling child? for as often as I speak against him, I do earnestly remember him still: therefore my heart yearns for him; I will surely have mercy on him, says Yahweh. 21 Set up road signs, make guideposts; set your heart toward the highway, even the way by which you went: turn again, virgin of Israel, turn again to these your cities. 22 How long will you go here and there, you backsliding daughter? for Yahweh has created a new thing in the earth: a woman shall encompass a man. 23 Thus says Yahweh of Hosts, the God of Israel, Yet again shall they use this speech in the land of Judah and in the cities of it, when I shall bring again their captivity: Yahweh bless you, habitation of righteousness, mountain of holiness. 24 Judah and all the cities of it shall dwell therein together, the farmers, and those who go about with flocks. 25 For I have satiated the weary soul, and every sorrowful soul have I replenished. 26 On this I awakened, and saw; and my sleep was sweet to me.

27 Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of animal. 28 It shall happen that, like as I have watched over them to pluck up and to break down and to overthrow and to destroy and to afflict, so will I watch over them to build and to plant, says Yahweh. 29 In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge. 30 But everyone shall die for his own iniquity: every man who eats the sour grapes, his teeth shall be set on edge. 31 Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: 32 not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they broke, although I was a husband to them, says Yahweh. 33 But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says Yahweh: I will put my law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people: 34 and they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know Yahweh; for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says Yahweh: for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more.

35 Thus says Yahweh, who gives the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, who stirs up the sea, so that the waves of it roar; Yahweh of hosts is his name: 36 If these ordinances depart from before me, says Yahweh, then the seed of Israel also shall cease from being a nation before me forever. 37 Thus says Yahweh: If heaven above can be measured, and the foundations of the earth searched out beneath, then will I also cast off all the seed of Israel for all that they have done, says Yahweh. 38 Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that the city shall be built to Yahweh from the tower of Hananel to the gate of the corner. 39 The measuring line shall go out further straight onward to the hill Gareb, and shall turn about to Goah. 40 The whole valley of the dead bodies and of the ashes, and all the fields to the brook Kidron, to the corner of the horse gate toward the east, shall be holy to Yahweh; it shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down any more forever