The Name “Lucifer”

Just some background information concerning the word “lucifer”. The word “lucifer” is taken from Jerome’s Latin Vulgate translation. In the Vulgate, the Hebrew word heylel (Strong’s #1966, meaning “shining one, or morning star”) is rendered “lucifer” in Isaiah 14:12, which is part of the words of the dead kings in sheol figuratively speaking (Isaiah 14:9,10) to the king of Babylon. (Isaiah 14:4) However, the king of Babylon evidently was being used as a type of Satan. The King James Version brings this Latin word over into English as a proper name in Isaiah 14:12, and from this the word has traditionally been applied as a proper name in retrospect to the angel who later became Satan.

In the Vulgate the word is also found in Job 11:17 (a rendering of the Hebrew word *boqer*, meaning “morning”; Strong’s #1242) and 2 Peter 1:19 (a rendering of the Greek word “phosphoros”, Strong’s #5459; meaning “morning star, Venus”).

“Lucifer” in the Latin Vulgate:

The Hebrew word “heylel” is only once used in the Bible, and this is at Isaiah 14:12. I doubt that “heylel” was meant to be a proper name of the angel who later became Satan, but, by tradition, the rendering of “heylel” into the Vulgate as “lucifer”, and then into English as “Lucifer”, has brought about this application. It appears most likely that this term is applied of him in Isaiah as a reference to what Satan purported himself to be, as though he were the sun brightly shining over all the other angels (Isaiah 14:13), and over mankind. — 2 Corinthians 11:14.

Witchcraft and the Bible

The word “witchcraft” did not come into existence until several centuries after the Bible was written. It appears to be first used by Catholic Church writers. Its actual etymology is not known, but there are several theories. The word witch probably carries the meaning of wise or wicked. If the word “witch” means “wicked”, then there not much to discuss concerning its meaning. But if the word “means” wise, we need to explore more in order to see how this applies to the Bible.

Many have assumed that the “craft” in witchcraft pertains to a “Skill in doing or making something, as in the arts; proficiency”. If this is what was meant by those who coined the word, then the term witchcraft would refer to the having a skill, art, or proficiency in knowledge or wisdom.

However, simple “skill” is probably not what the Catholic writers had in mind for using the expression “craft” in this word. More than likely, “Skill in evasion or deception; guile,”* is the meaning that was meant, as this more harmonizes with the what is presented in the Bible. With this in mind, we can see how this word is carries similar meaning of “magi” or “wise men” or “cunning folk”**.
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*The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.
** See:

Nevertheless, the terminology implies having knowledge and ability of applying secret ceremony, thus the term “occultism”. However, it is the source of this wisdom and the power connected to it that should be of concern to one, not just the word used to describe it.

In the Bible, there is the wisdom of God and the wisdom of the evil one. Satan, through craftiness, using the serpent, led Eve to believe that by making herself a child of disobedience that she would become wise [the first performance of wise-craft — witchcraft — toward a human], but Paul says they became fools, that is, they were deceived. (Genesis 3:1-6; Romans 1:22; 2 Corinthians 11:3) As a result of this witchcraft, the world came to be in bondage to futility and corruption as sons of disobedience, the seed of the serpent, children of Satan. (Genesis 3:15; Psalm 39:5; Ecclesiastes 1:2; 2:11,15,17,19,21,23; 3:19; 4:4,8,16; 5:10; 6:11; 11:8,10; 12:8; Matthew 13:38; John 8:38,41,44; Romans 8:21,22; Acts 13:10; Ephesians 2:2; 5:6; Colossians 3:6) Through and by means of their faith in God’s promise, many are called out of Satan’s world to be counted as of the seed of the woman, the seed of promise, and as God’s children. (Exodus 4:22; Deuteronomy 14:1; Jeremiah 3:4; 31:1,9,19; Hosea 1:10; 11:1; John 1:12; Romans 8:14-17,29; 9:8; Galatians 3:26,29; 4:5-7; Ephesians 1:5; 1 John 3:1,2; Hebrews 11:4-40 ) The two seeds are in opposition to each other. Most miraculous works, even those that are often seen to be “good” in the eyes of men, even many miracles done in the name of Jesus, are nonetheless of Satan, who is deceiving the entire world. (Jeremiah 23:16,17; Matthew 7:22,23; Luke 13:26,27; 2 Thessalonians 2:9,10; 1 John 5:19; Revelation 12:9; 13:14) Satan makes himself appear to be an angel of light, an angel of good, thus he is wise in his craft. — 2 Corinthians 11:3,4; Matthew 4:1-10.

In the Bible, the words “crafty”, “cunning”, etc., [Hebrew, `aram, `aruwm, `ormah, Greek, Panourgos, Panourgia, Dolos] are usually spoken of as being deceptive (Genesis 3:1; Exodus 21:4; Joshua 9:4; 1 Samuel 23:22; Psalm 83:3; Job 5:12; 15:5; Matthew 6:4; 7:22; 14:1; John 1:47; Acts 13:10; Luke 20:23; Romans 1:29; 1 Corinthians 3:19; 2 Corinthians 4:2; 11:3; 12:16; Ephesians 4:14; 1 Thessalonians 2:3; 1 Peter 2:1; 2:22; 3:10; Revelation 14:5), but they also can be used of being prudent. (Proverbs 1:4; 8:5,12; 12:16,23; 13:16; 14:8; 14:15,18; 15:5; 19:25; 22:3; 27:12) Most often, however, the Hebrew and Greek words involved are used in the sense of deceptiveness, thus the scripture says that in Jesus there was no craft or guile. (John 1:47; 1 Peter 2:22) With this in mind, the basis as shown here of the word witch*craft*, craftily or cunningly wise, is that of being wise by deception — as was Satan, not as being prudent.

In the King James Version of the Bible, the words translated as witchcraft (wise by deception) in some translations: Hebrew, *Qecem* [Strong;s #7083], *Qacam* [Strong’s #7080], Kashaph [Strong’s #3784 and Kesheph* [Strong’s #3785; Greek: *Pharmakeia* [Strong’s #5331]. None of these words in themselves actually mean witch-craft, that is, craftily wise, but these words do imply such a meaning. These words are concerning various forms of the deceptive wisdom, such as sorcery, divination, spiritism, etc.

Another related word is *’owb*, Strongs Hebrew #178. This word is translated in the KJV most often as “familiar spirit(s)”. Its actual meaning of “leathern vessel” relates to a person serving as a “vessel”, a medium, used by a spirit. The word “familiar” (not actually in the Bible itself, but is added by some translations) comes from the Latin word *familiaris*. It could relate to of one’s family, or to a household servant in a family. Evidently this is added to either express the idea of that medium could bring forth a spirit familiar to the one wishing to speak to his dead loved one, or that the medium had spirits as their servants ready to obey their commands.

Nevertheless, the various practices involved — magic, divination, sorcery, supposed communication with the dead, prophesying by stars, fortune telling – as described in the Bible are all forms of spiritualism, and could be considered by the word witchcraft, and those who practice these make use of the power given to the angels that sinned. These angels, the head of whom is Satan the father of the lie, do much to make themselves appear to be good, and make it appear that to disobey Yahweh is actually the right and good thing to do, as Satan did with Eve. – Isaiah 5:20; Malachi 3:15; Luke 11:35; 16:15; 2 Peter 2:18,19.

Satan will cast out Satan in order to make himself and his works appear to be good rather than evil. Even most miracles done in Jesus’ name are not recognized by Jesus, thus are of Satan. In other words, Satan is divided against himself, and his house will soon fall. — Matthew 7:22,23; 12:24-27; 24:21,22,43; Revelation 3:10.

The Bible totally and without reservation condemns the use of “wise craft” (the deceptive wisdom of the demons) to perform magic, healing, or whatever, no matter how good it may appear to be. (Exodus 22:18; Leviticus 19:31; 20:6,27; 2 Corinthians 11:14; Galatians 5:20) Proper use of Yahweh’s holy spirit is not condemned. Jesus performed works by means of the latter, not the former.

It is true that the source of all power is Yahweh, the God and Father of Jesus, but the fallen angels are misusing this power in opposition to the only true God.

Wherever we find a counterfeit we may rest assured there exists a genuine. If there were no genuine gold dollars, there could be no base imitations, or counterfeits. Then too, the base or spurious article must appear very much like the genuine or it would not be a counterfeit.

This is what we claim relative to what is at the present time called “Spiritualism”, “witchcraft”, sorcery, magick, etc.: That it is a deceptive counterfeit of the true works of God through his holy spirit, as described in the Bible.

Whoever has carefully searched the scriptures cannot have failed to see that while God throughout all past ages has condemned evil and sin in their various forms, and warned his children — both “Israel after the flesh” and also the spiritual children (the Gospel Age Church) — of the danger and bad results of evil, yet He has nevertheless permitted evil and good to stand side by side before the people, for their choice. Additionally, what men may consider to be sinful and what Yahweh considers to be sin may not always agree. The mores of men in some cultures have demanded that a male guest in a home should sleep with the host’s wife. In some cultures it is considered proper to do service to idol-gods, etc. In some cultures fornication is considered the proper thing for teenagers before marriage. Thus what a culture may consider moral may not be what God considers to be right. If we take heed to Yahweh’s commands we may discern which is evil and by obedience to Yahweh’s Word, shun the evil and choose the good. God is the head and fountain of goodness and truth and the Scriptures teach that Satan is the head and fountain of all evil and error — ‘The father of lies’ (deceptions). (John 8:44) Both of these are spiritual beings. “God is a spirit,” (John 4:24) and Satan was once an angel of God — The chief or Prince of “Those angels which kept not their first (sinless) estate.” (Matthew 9:34; Jude 1:6) These, though cast out from God’s presence, are not yet destroyed — they still preserve their power as “angels,” though through sin they have become evil angels; consequently they still are spiritual beings (not human) and have the same powers as they ever had, and as good angels have, except that God has put them under certain limitations and restraints. — 2 Peter 2:4.

If we trace them through the Scriptures we shall find that these fallen spiritual beings have continually made use of their spiritual–super-natural powers, to lead mankind astray into disobedience of God and injury to themselves. Sometimes it is easily apparent that their works are evil; but most of the time they are very crafty in making their works appear to be for the good, rather than for bad.

Of course, spiritual beings possess powers greater and higher than humanity. We can see from the statements relative to good angels that they can be present in our midst without our being conscious of their presence. (The angel of Yahweh encamps round about them that reverence him. — Psalm 34:7) (Are they not all ministering spirits sent forth to minister to those who shall be heirs of salvation? — Hebrews 1:14) These have power to appear as or in a flame of fire (The Angel of Yahweh so appeared to Moses in the bush. — Exodus 3:2) or they can and have appeared as men, and as such are called “men”, although they really are not human beings. (Genesis 18:1,2,16,22; 19:1,15) Of this power there are numbers of instances in the Bible.

Some other powers of angels can be discovered by examining the Biblical record. For instance, the angels who delivered Lot and his family from Sodom, had power to smite the rioters of Sodom with blindness. (Genesis 19:11.) An angel “did wondrously before Manoah;” another performed a miracle before Gideon. (Judges 6:21 and 13-19.) The Angel of Yahweh delivered the Apostles from prison, and yet left the prison doors unmolested; again, an angel delivered Peter from prison; the doors seemingly opened of their own accord. (Acts 5:19-23 and 12:8) On many occasions they made known to men things which were about to come to pass, etc.

Now, the evil angels, “the devil and his angels,” have by nature the very same powers as originally given to them by Yahweh, but are restrained by Yahweh in what they are allowed to do with those powers. So much of evil as can be overruled for good, and tend to the development of experience and the education and discipline of the “heirs of God”, and for the exercise of the world in the results of evil — is permitted and the remainder restrained, even as the wrath of man is restrained. (Psalm 76:10) An example of God’s restraining what the demons can do is seen in how he dealt with the astrologers (who themselves had been deceived by the “star” into going to Herod. — Matthew 2:1-16) As God through his Spirit and influence works in and through men who give themselves up to His control, so does Satan operate in and through those who are vessels of wrath, and even upon enlightened Christians who yield themselves as instruments of disobedience. (Romans 6:13; 9:22) One cannot be serving two opposing masters at once; he is either the servant of one or the other in what he is doing. (Matthew 6:24; Luke 16:13) “His servants ye are to whom you render service.” (Romans 6:16) As Jesus said to some, “Ye are of your father the devil for his works ye do.” — John 8:44.

As “God in times past spoke unto the fathers through the prophets,” (Hebrews 1:1) who were His mouthpieces, so Satan spoke through his agents and agencies. His first agent was the serpent which became his agent in his craftily beguiling Eve into disobedience. (Genesis 3:13) He manifested his powers through the magicians and soothsayers of Babylon and remarkably in those of Egypt, where God’s powers were manifested through Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh, while Satan’s powers, of a similar kind, were used to oppose the truth for a time. Here these two spiritual powers were strikingly manifested; both did miracles — things which men alone could not do — but which men possessed of evil and good powers, did do. (Exodus 7:11-22 and 8:7-18) “There were false prophets also among the people,” who evidently spoke by an inspiration, or power in them almost like the real prophets of God; these were the counterfeits. (See 2 Peter 2:1 Jeremiah. 23:21) We are aware that to the worldly mind it seems superstitious to believe that men and women may be so controlled by demons as to be wizards, sorcerers and magicians; but they are recognized as such in the Scriptures, and we believe it. Israel was commanded by Yahweh to put such to death. (Exodus 22:18; Leviticus 20:27, etc) Manasseh, King of Judah made Judah to err; he “used enchantments and used witchcraft and dealt with a familiar spirit and with wizards.” (2 Chronicles 33:6.) Take a concordance and see how much God says against wizards, sorcerers, and “they that have familiar spirits” — mediums of demons for communicating with mankind. It was the claim of these mediums of “familiar spirits” that they held communication with the dead and received their information from them. Thus they supposedly had power bring up the family (familiar) spirits of the dead. In this claim they contradicted the plain statements of God’s word, which assure us that the dead could not furnish any information. (See Job 14:10-21; Ecclesiastes 9:10) Likewise, today, many make this same claim to have ability to communicate with the dead, when in actuality, if they are contacting spirits at all, they are contacting wicked spirits who are impersonating the dead.

But this was merely another way in which Satan sought to continue the lie imposed upon Eve in Eden. [“He is a liar from the beginning” said Jesus.] God had said that if disobedient they would die; Satan contradicted this statement; claimed that they would become better off if they disobeyed, that they would not die, and thus that God was a liar. Ever since, he seeks to uphold the statement, “You will not be dying to die [literal Hebrew, die, to die].” Full well does he know that if people realized that it was the “spirits of demons” who spoke to them through the mediums they would shun them; hence, the claim that it is dead people (not dead, but more alive than ever) who communicate the information.

An illustration of this sort, is given in 1 Samuel 28. Saul, King of Israel, had become disobedient to Yahweh, and God would no longer communicate with him through the Prophets. He was engaged in a war with the Philistines, and a great battle was about to be fought. He wanted council and desired to know what would be the outcome. Since Yahweh would not answer him, he sought out one of the condemned and forbidden class, a medium at Endor, a woman who had a wicked spirit.

Most are familiar with the story: (1 Samuel 28:3-20) how that the medium pretends ignorance as to her visitor, knows what Saul desires, gives a description of Samuel, etc. Then follows an account of the coming defeat of Saul’s army and the death of himself and his sons. The fact that these things occurred almost just as foretold by the medium, has been thought by some, to be a proof that Samuel really furnished the information. But, Satan could foretell those things as well as Samuel could were he alive. Not that Satan is a prophet, nor that God reveals coming things to him, but he is a student of God’s word and a believer of it.

“Devils also believe and tremble.” (James. 2:19) The defeat of Saul and accession of David to the throne had been foretold by the Prophet and both Saul and Satan knew it, and Satan had learned that every word of God’s is sure. Besides we should not forget the words of the apostle that “He that hath the power of death is the devil.” (Hebrew 2:14.) Since he is the executor of the death penalty, and must have the permission to execute from God, (Job 1:12) is it strange that he knew that he was to have power over the lives of Saul, his sons and many others? No, it is the reasonable inference. Certainly we should not for a moment suppose that God (or Samuel if he could) would recognize, or use any means of communication which Yahweh had prohibited on pain of death and condemned as wicked. — Read 1 Chronicles 10:13.

Coming further down the stream of time, we learn that the same wicked spirits continued to operate in the same manner. Yahweh, while still permitting them, warns the people against such, saying: “They shall say unto you, ‘Seek unto them that have familiar spirits (spirit mediums) and unto wizards that peep and mutter.’ (But) should not a people seek unto their God? For [why should] the living [go] to the dead? To the law and to the testimony, [the Bible], if they speak not according to this Word it is because there is no light in them.” (Isaiah 8:19,20) God warns people not to believe any one whose teachings are contrary to the Word, no matter what powers they may exercise — even if they come in his name. — Deuteronomy 18:20; Jeremiah 14:14.

Coming down to the days of Jesus and the apostles we find that Satan still operated in much the same manner, as well as a variety of other ways. Jesus did not receive his power through ceremonial magic, witchcraft, or by disobedient spirits, but from the his Father, through God’s holy [dedicated, set-apart] spirit. (Matthew 4:1; 12:18,28; Mark 1:8; Luke 1:15; 4:1,14,18; 5:17 10:21; John 1:33; 3:34; Acts 2:22) He did cast out wicked spirits. When the Jewish leaders accused him of having an “unclean spirit”, and of casting out spirits by Beelzebul, the ruler of the demons (Mark 3:30) , Jesus responded: “But if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons cast them out?” (Luke 11:19) Here he implied that their “sons” were the ones who cast out demons by Beelzebul. Later he plainly told the Jewish leaders: “You are of your Father, the devil.” (John 8:44) Thus he gives evidence to the source of their works.

Among the more notable instances [not to mention the numerous cases of casting out of devils, etc., by both Jesus and the disciples] we might remind you of the experience of Philip and Peter with Simon the sorcerer (Acts 8:7-9-24.) “Unclean spirits crying with loud voice came out of many that were possessed; … but there was a certain man named Simon which…used sorcery and bewitched the people … to whom they all gave heed … saying, This man is the great power (medium) of God.” Thus did Satan use his power to delude the people.

Paul and Barnabas had an experience with another of these mediums of the devil named Elymas, who withstood them. Paul, addressing him, said: “O full of all subtilty and all mischief, thou child of the devil, thou enemy of all righteousness, wilt thou not cease to pervert the right ways of Yahweh?” (Acts 13:10.) And he was blinded immediately. Again Paul and Silas met a female medium at Phillippi. “A certain damsel possessed with a spirit of divination … which brought her masters much gain by soothsaying.” But Paul “turned and said to the [unclean] spirit I command thee in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her. And he came out the same hour.” — Acts 16:16.

And so ever since, Satan has kept up his practices with various changes of method to suit the circumstances; sometimes with characteristic devilishness, at other times in the garb of religion, “For Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light, therefore it is no great thing if his ministers [mediums] also be transformed as ministers of righteousness.” (2 Corinthians 11:14.) In our day when knowledge is so great, and morality (often confused with “Christianity”) so popular in some circles, Satan must if he would continue to oppose truth, take the religious cloak; and so he does. Today spiritualism ranks itself among the religious sects. [“The synagogue [church] of Satan,” truly.]

Spiritualism though refined and modernized is yet the same that it ever was, in ages past. Its object is not the inculcation of truth, nor of love for God the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ. They often claim that Jesus was a fine medium and taught and used spiritualism in His day as well as He understood it. They often do not outwardly profess to oppose the Bible and its teachings, but they do so really, both teaching and practicing the very things therein condemned and still seeking to prove by their enchantments that men are not dead, thus endeavoring to uphold Satan’s first falsehood. — Genesis 3:4.

They still possess supernatural powers, too, just as in the days of Saul and Paul and Moses, etc. While we do not question that some of the things claimed to be done by them are mere human tricks, yet we know that there are many things done by them where no such trickery was possible. Among those who believe in “this way” (Acts 9:2; 22:4) are several who once were mediums of the devil and did “those things whereof they are now ashamed.” (Romans 6:21) These, when coming to a knowledge of the truth, are thankful for their escape from that “snare of the devil.” (1 Timothy 3:7) Spiritualism hates the light and their wonders are done under cover of their favorite principle — darkness. Their work of proselyting, too, is dark, covered — secret. Jesus gives us a word of wisdom on this subject. “Every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light lest his deeds should be reproved.” — John 3:20.

Though working stealthily, their numbers are large and embrace many of the influential of earth. Thoughts of witchcraft and magic are implanted early in the minds of the young through various kinds of media, including even the public classroom. While it often presented as fantasy, yet many start from this fantasy to actual use of demonic power to produce healings, find lost things, find mates, etc. It is coming before people in a way that commands attention, and those who do not realize it to be the work of Satan are almost sure to regard it as a power of God.

Joseph Cook, justly celebrated for his able defense of the Bible and its author, God, against the attacks of Atheists and Infidels, such as Huxley, Darwin, Arnold, et. al., had his attention aroused to the recognition of the growing influence of “Spiritualism,” and having investigated the subject to some extent he once delivered a lecture on the subject, in which he expressed his belief that many of their tricks and performances, are performed by no human power and are actually supernatural. He did not pretend to say how, or by what power, but claimed that not only himself but some of the profoundest scientific minds of Germany had reached the conclusion that Spiritualism cannot be condemned as false by any scientific tests yet applied to it.

Nor is this power of Spiritualism difficult to account for if we take the Bible as our authority and recognize it as the work of Satan, whom Jesus designates “The prince of this world.” (John 14:30) “The prince of the power of the air (spiritual power) the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience.” (Ephesians 2:2) And the same book is our authority for saying that “Spiritualism” has not yet reached the climax of its power; its powers are to increase wonderfully. Paul says, (1 Timothy 4:1), “Now the Spirit [of God] speaketh expressly that in the latter times some [who one walked in the way] shall depart from the faith giving heed to seducing [deceiving] spirits and doctrines of devils.” Jesus says, “They are the spirits of devils working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the whole world to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.” — Rev. 16:14.

These disobedient angels once materialized human-like bodies and married the daughters of men. We notice that since that day, they have been so restrained, that only obedient angels have been able to materialize in human-like bodies. Thus the wicked spirits since their debasement have appeared or worked as “phantoms”, by means of possession, thought-influence, or through “mediums”.

Peter (2:4) and Jude (6) tell us, that when cast out of God’s presence as evil angels, they were bound by “chains of darkness” “unto the judgment of the great day.” Many scriptures have shown us that the closing part of the Gospel age is to be upon the living a time of trial and trouble preparing them for the coming Millennial reign of Christ, and is called “the day of Yahweh” — “the great day” — “the great day of His wrath,” etc. We understand, then, that Satan and his angels have been limited that they might not appear physically except through human beings who become “possessed of devils” or became his “mediums.” They have thus been confined or chained. The prophecies indicate, however, that in the last days these wicked spirits will be more active than ever before, and God’s wrath would allow them more freedom to show their deceptive works and influence upon mankind, to the point that mankind might be greater deceived thereby (2 Thessalonians 2:10-12), while at the same time knowledge is increased more rapidly than ever before in history bringing more trouble (Daniel 12:4; 2 Timothy 3:1-7), yet God’s truth is fallen onto the streets to be trampled upon. – Isaiah 59:14.

The facts correspond to this exactly. “Spiritualism” — in all its forms: neo-paganism, witchcraft, scientology, ufo-ism, etc., claims that they are having more power to show their wonders daily, and many claim now that these spirits can make appearances — not only in the dark — but in broad daylight.

The trial of this day is not only a day of trouble and distress among nations, but it includes a trouble or fire upon the living phase of the church. For all the errors of human traditions shall be consumed as dross, wood, hay, stubble, in the fire (trial) of this day. The apostle says, “Think it not strange concerning the fiery trial which shall try you (the church) as though some strange [unforetold] thing happened unto you.” (1 Peter 4:12.) For the fire of that day shall try every man’s work of what sort it is: “He that hath built [his faith] with gold, silver and precious stones [the truths of God’s word] the same shall remain. (His faith will not be destroyed.) But if any man build with wood, hay, stubble, (the teachings and creeds of man — under the influence of the lying spirits) the same shall suffer loss, &c. (1 Corinthians 3:12-15) This trial is “the trial of your faith” and in this “day of Yahweh” not only does the light of truth shine strongly and beautifully, showing us the great prize of our high calling as we never saw it before; revealing to us the present king, who causes us to sup with Him and feeds us with His truth which is, “food in due season,” giving strength needed in this day; but it is also a day for the increase of the powers of evil, that the separation between the wheat and tares (the children of the kingdom and the children of the wicked one. — Matthew 13:38) may be complete.

Because of this struggle between truth and error, the power of God and the power of Satan, etc., Paul says, “My brethren, be strong in Yahweh and the power of His might. Put on the whole armor of God that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. For we wrestle not against the flesh and blood [not against human beings, but against evil spiritual beings] but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness, of this world, (Satan –the prince of this world. John 12:31) against spiritual wickedness in high (controlling) places.

Wherefore, [on this account] take unto you the whole armor of God, that ye may be able to withstand [the spiritual wickedness – -the devil’s wiles] in the evil day [this day of the Lord’s presence {parousia} — day of trial.] … Stand, therefore, having your loins girt about with truth and having on the breastplate of righteousness, etc. — Ephesians 6:11.

This same day of trial is referred to in Psalm 91, where only those who have made God’s truth their shield and buckler [support] are able to withstand the snares of the devil, the arrows of infidelity and the moral pestilence of Spiritualism. While thousands shall fall at their side.

God does not approve of the works of the world’s wise men, magi, magicians, sorcerers, etc. The wise men — who were misguided by their spiritualism — were deceived by a demon-inspired star — shining in the sky — not directly to Bethlehem, but to Herod, so that Herod could kill the promised seed. God did intervene to thwart Satan’s designs, but this does not mean that God approved of the religious practices of these magi.

All over the world we find these demons performing works of healing, speaking in tongues, and various forms of miracles, making themselves appear to be good guides, while they are actually in opposition to the one true God — Yahweh. Usually their mediums are commonly “moral” people, seeking to do what is good in their eyes, or in the eyes of their neighbors, but this does not mean that they have not been deceived by these wicked spirits.

Nevertheless, the Christian, who wishes to be separate from Satan’s world (John 15:19; 17:14, Galatians 1:4) should be desirous of pleasing the God and Father of the Lord Jesus (Romans 5:6; Colossians 1:10; 1 Thessalonians 4:1), and in obeying his wishes as close as possible in all things. The command given to the Israelites is still applicable to the Christian: “There shall not be found among you anyone who burns his son or his daughter as an offering, anyone who practices divination or tells fortunes or interprets omens, or a sorcerer, or a charmer or a medium or a wizard or a necromancer, for whoever does these things is an abomination to [Yahweh].” – Deuteronomy 18:10-12. – English Standard Version

Did Jesus practice any of these forms craftily knowledge? In one instance, Jesus spat in the dirt and then rubbed his saliva mixed with the dirt over a man’s eyes, and the man could then see (John 9:6). At another time, he simply touched a man to clean him of leprosy. (Luke 5:13) Of the ten lepers, he only ask that they obey a simply command. (Luke 17:12-14). He did not do things according ceremonial magic or technique. He relied on, and was submissive to his God who had sent him. (John 8:28-29; Deuteronomy 18:15-19) He performed many miracles, but the manner often varied. There was no ceremonial magic, or consultation of spirit mediums, or any thing of the sort. Jesus did not do miracles on demand, but only when he was led by his God through God’s spirit to do so.

Jesus performed miracles in obedience to, and out of love for the only true God, Yahweh. What many do not realize is that one cannot serve the only true God, and serve the gods of the heathen. Yet in witchcraft, although the name of Yahweh (Jehovah) or of Jesus may be called upon, often the names of heathen gods are often also called upon. The Bible nowhere speaks of a goddess, except as that term may be applied to the female gods of the heathen, which Yahweh’s people were told not to have any relationship with.

Mythology and the Bible

January 8, 1998

This treatise is an edited version of Morton Edgar’s Mythology and the Bible, originally published in the 1920s.

There are only a few changes in the text: references to Yahweh as “Jehovah” or “the Lord” have been changed to read “Yahweh”; references to Babylon the Great have been changed slightly; and the English has been updated (especially in scriptural quotations)  to a more modern reading.

Scriptural quotations are rendered in modern English by Ronald Day of Restoration Light based on the King James Version.

We have added numbers to each paragraph to facilitate reference and group study.

We encourage all to reproduce this publication to give to others and for use in group Bible study and/or distribution to the public. You may let us know if you are having a group study using this publication, so that we may let others in your area know of it.


(1)  It may be asked: What possible connection can there be between mythology and the Bible? Is not a myth an untruth; whereas the Bible is the “Word of Truth”?

(2)  It is important to notice, however, that many of the ancient mythical tales have a substratum of historical fact; and much in them that appears fabulous and nonsensical on the surface, proves on careful investigation to have a hidden meaning.

(3)  That the ancient nations of Babylon, Egypt, Greece, etc., were highly civilized is demonstrated by the remains of their wonderful architecture, the style of which cannot be improved upon even by the advanced nations of our day. Such cultured people must have had some reason, satisfactory to themselves, to induce them to worship their mythical gods. The Bible throws light upon this question; and a little knowledge of mythology aids us to understand a number of very obscure texts of the Scriptures.

Scriptural Recognition of Heathen Gods

(4)  In giving the law to the Israelites, Yahweh commanded them to on no account worship the gods of the other nations; but we read of many instances where they deliberately disregarded this injunction, and were in consequence punished until they returned to Him, the only true God. Jeremiah records a case in point in chapter 44, verses 15-19,25– “As for the word that you have spoken to us in the name of Yahweh, we will not listen to you, but we will certainly do whatever goes forth from our own mouth, to burn incense to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings to her, as we have done, we, and our fathers, our kings, and our princes, in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem; for then we had plenty of victuals, and we were well, and we saw nothing bad. But since we left off burning incense to the queen of heaven, and pouring out drink offerings to her, we have been lacking all things, and have been consumed by the sword and by the famine. And when we burned incense to the queen of heaven,” etc. See also Jeremiah 7:17,19: “Do you not see what they are doing in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem? The children are gathering wood, and the fathers are kindling the fire, and women are kneading their dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven, and they are pouring drink offerings to the other gods, that they may provoke me to anger.”

(5)  Who was this “Queen of heaven” in whom the erring Jews had such implicit confidence?

(6)  In Judges 2:11-13 is recorded another falling away of the Israelites: “And they turned away from Yahweh God of their fathers, who brought them out of the land of Egypt, and followed other gods, of the gods of the people that were round about them, and bowed themselves to them, and provoked Yahweh to anger. And they turned away from Yahweh, and served Baal and Ashtaroth.”

(7)  Who was Baal? Who was Ashtaroth?

(8)  As all are aware, the Bible contains many references to Baal; yet it does not disclose the identity of this god, nor explain why the faithless Jews and other peoples so consistently rendered him obeisance. It is here that we are aided by Mythology, the study of which reveals the fact that the god Baal, and the goddess the Queen of heaven, were universally worshiped under various names and titles. While this is recognized by students of Mythology, it is not so generally realized that these same deities are even now worshiped in our very midst by the adherents of that great idolatrous system which the Scriptures named “Babylon the Great”!

The Two Babylons

(9)  History proves that Papacy’s adoration of images, dead saints and relics, its holy candles, holy water, etc., and all its vain ritual, are borrowed from heathen sources. Papacy’s excuse, as voiced by Cardinal Newman, is that although it is admitted that such things are “the very instruments and appendages of demon-worship,” they were, however, “sanctified by adoption into the church.” (Newman’s Development, pp. 359,360) But it is now clearly apparent that the Romish Church has not been justified in adopting heathen customs and practices. For this reason, Papacy is one of the leading religious organizations that are associated with the covenant-woman denominated “Babylon the Great”; the Babylon of old was full of these abominations, and therefore well typified the fallen church of the Gospel Age.

(10)  Babylon was the first nation are kingdom after the deluge, and by it idolatrous worship was inaugurated.

(11)  Comparing Jeremiah 51:6-8 with Revelation 17:4,5; 14:8, we notice that almost the same expressions are used. In Jeremiah, ancient Babylon is said to have been a golden cup in Yahweh’s hands, by which all nations were made drunk — drunken with the wine of false religion. In Revelation “Babylon the Great” is called the “Mother of Harlots”, the ‘parent’ woman-city, which makes all nations drink of her golden cup full of abominations, the wine of false doctrine. As typical Babylon fell, so will antitypical “Babylon the Great” fall never to rise again.

(12)  That Babylon was the first nation after the flood is shown by Genesis 10:8-12. This reference also furnishes a clue to the origin of the worship of false gods; and by comparing with certain statements in mythological histories we get a further clue to the identity of these deities. We read: “And Cush begat Nimrod; he began to be a mighty hunter before Yahweh. Therefore it is said: `Even as Nimrod, the mighty hunter before Yahweh.’ And the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. Out of that land he went forth into Assyria and built Nineveh,” etc. (See margin of KJV.)

Nimrod the Mighty Hunter, and His Influence in the World

(13)  Why should the Bible make special mention of Nimrod? Because he was the first to become mighty; and even to this day the countries of Babylonia and Assyria are filled with the name of Nimrod. When Moses wrote Genesis, although Nimrod had long since passed away, his name had become a proverb, so that is was a popular saying: “Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before Yahweh.” His might lay in the fact of his being a hunter; for we must reflect on the conditions which would obtain in the earth in his day. Only four human pairs were preserved from the waters of the deluge; but many kinds of animals came forth from the ark; and as these animals multiplies one can see how the terror of the more ferocious among them would lay hold upon all men. He, therefore, who brought destruction to the tiger, the leopard, the lion, the python, was regarded as the great benefactor, the man above all others to be honored by his fellows and commemorated by posterity.

(14)  The universal popularity of an individual must be a force for good or for bad to the community. Although the Scriptures do not directly allude to the nature of the influence exerted by Nimrod, we may safely infer from the character of his parentage, and from other circumstances, that it was bad. That his grandfather, Ham, had a depraved disposition is proved in Genesis 9:18-25; while in the same connection Shem was given a special blessing because of his purity (verse 26). Thus we gather that very shortly after the deluge the human race was divided into two camps, one for Yahweh and righteousness among whom Shem took the leading part, the other for unrighteousness with Ham as the principal apostate. Of the latter branch of the race Nimrod was descended.

(15)  It is improbable, therefore, that the declaration that Nimrod was a “mighty hunter before Yahweh” signifies that he in any way sought thus to honor Yahweh. In such a connection the phrase “before Yahweh” rather implies a belittling of Yahweh’s power to protect His own. Perceiving the menaced condition of the race, Nimrod, trusting to his own prowess, came forward as the bold savior of the world, and becoming a mighty one in the earth attracted men’s attention away from Yahweh. The natural result of the admiration of a man of Nimrod’s character must necessarily have been to destroy reverence for Yahweh, and thus lead to the adoration and worship of the creature instead of the Creator. That the world did fall into infidelity shortly after the flood is proved from the first part of the eleventh chapter of Genesis. The great Jewish historian Josephus says in confirmation: “The multitudes were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God.” — Antiquities 1:4:2.

(16)  We cannot suppose, however, that the saintly few would permit this evil without exerting some effort to stay the downward course, for Yahweh’s people in all ages from the time of righteous Abel have protested against sin. If the tradition of the Jews be true that Shem was Melchizedec (and the claim seems reasonable and quite in accord with Scripture analogy), then, as “Priest of the Most High God” he must have been a very strong influence in Yahweh’s cause, and a constant check to the evilly disposed.

(17)  Thus far we may reasonably infer the brief references to Nimrod given in the Scriptures. To gain further information about this mighty hunter we require to study the pages of Mythology.

Ninus and Semiramis

(18)  In Genesis 10:11, already quoted, we read that Nimrod built the city of Nineveh. This little item of Bible history enables us to identify Nimrod with the king Ninus of classical writings. The name Nineveh literally means “the habitation of Ninus.” The historian Apollodorus expressly states that “Ninus is Nimrod.” (Apollodori, Fragm. 68 in Müller, Vol. i, p. 440) In the ancient records of Justin and Diodorus Siculus, Ninus is credited with similar kingly powers as are attributed to Nimrod by the Scriptures (Justin, Hist. Rom. Script, Vol. ii., p. 615; Diodorus, Bibliotheca, lib. ii, p. 63) Ninus was the sons, as well as the husband, of Semiramis. According to Eusebius these two reigned as king and queen in the time of Abraham; but the great chronologist Clinton, and the celebrated Excavator and Linguist Layard, both assign an earlier date to the reign of Ninus and Semiramis.

(19)  In one of the famous sculptures of ancient Babylon, Ninus and Semiramis are represented as actively engaged in the pursuits of the chase, the “quiver-bearing Semiramis” being a fit companion for the “mighty hunter before Yahweh.” — Diodorus, lib. ii, p. 69.

(20)  Semiramis was a beautiful but very depraved woman, and it is to her that much of the extravagant and licentious character of the heathen religions has been ascribed. In his work Inferno, in the 5th Canto, Inferno pictures Semiramis as one of the damned in hell (not purgatory); and he also mentions Ninus in the same connection. Although Dante’s “visions” were figment of his imagination, yet his consigning Semiramis to eternal punishing shows the bad esteem in which she was held.

The “Mysteries” of the Heathen Religions

(21)  The Chaldean “Mysteries” can be traced back to the days of Semiramis. It appears that her husband’s apostasy was quite open, and consisted mainly in leading men into sensuality, teaching them that they might enjoy the “pleasures of sin” without fear of retribution from a holy God. In his hunting expeditions he was accompanied by troops of women; and by music, games and revelries, and everything that pleases the natural heart, he insinuated himself into the favor of the world. It was after the death of Ninus or Nimrod that the secret “Mysteries” were set up by Semiramis and her followers.

(22)  Nimrod’s death is not noticed in the Scriptures, but there was an ancient tradition that his end was violent. Strange though it may seem, numerous lines of evidence (which we will investigate as we proceed) prove that it was this very death of Nimrod that constituted the foundational theme of the Mysteries. (See Hislop’s The Two Babylons) Salverté informs us that all who sought initiation into these systems were compelled to drink peculiar intoxicating beverages. This is undoubtedly the origin of Jeremiah’s allusion to the golden cup which made all the nations drunk; for every nation received its idolatrous religion from Babylon.

(23)  In all essentials the “Mysteries” of the different nations were the same, each being fashioned after the pattern of the “Mother” nation, Babylon. Regarding this Layard says: “Of the great antiquity of this primitive worship there is abundant evidence, and that it originated among the inhabitants of the Assyrian plains, we have the united testimony of sacred and profane history. It obtained the epithet of perfect, and was believed to be the most ancient religious system, having preceded that of the Egyptians. The identity of many of the Assyrian doctrines with those of Egypt is alluded to by Porphyry and Clemens.” Birch, also, says: “The Zodiacal signs . . . show unequivocally that the Greeks derived their notions and arrangements of the Zodiac [and consequently their Mythology, which was intertwined with it] from the Chaldeans. The identity of Nimrod with the constellation Orion is not to be rejected.” — Layard, Nineveh and its Remains, Vol. ii, pp. 439,440.

(24)  We see, therefore, that ancient Babylon was a fitting type of that wonderful “Mystery of Iniquity” of the Gospel Age, one of the main components of “Babylon the Great.” Just as that great system had its small beginnings in the days of the Apostles, being alluded to by Paul in 2 Thessalonians 2:7: “The mystery of iniquity does already work,” and afterwards attained so great dimensions that it has deceived the whole world, so the typical Mystery in literal Babylon also began in a small way, then grew and extended, and latterly became so universal that all nations were made “mad,” i.e., void of judgment. Only those who worship the true God had the spirit of a sound mind. — 2 Timothy 1:7.

“Mother and Son” Worship

(25)  While in “Babylon the Great,” the principal subjects of the devotion are the Madonna and her child (said to be the virgin Mary and Jesus), so in typical Babylon the popular worship was extended to a goddess mother and her son, who had their origin in Semiramis and her son Ninus (the Hebrew word for “son” is nin). Remembering the religious influence which proceeded from Babylon, we have here the explanation of the universal adoration of the “Mother and Son.” In Greece they were worshiped as Ceres the great mother, with the babe at her breast; or as Irene the goddess of Peace, with the boy Plutus in her arms. In pagan Rome as Fortuna and Jupiter-puer, or Jupiter the boy. In Asia as Cybele and Deius. In India as Isi and Iswara; and even in Thibet, China, and Japan, missionaries were astonished to find the exact counterpart of the Madonna and her child as devoutly reverenced as in Papal Rome itself!

The Egyptian God Osiris was Nimrod

(26)  In Egypt the Mother was worshiped as Isis, and the Son as Osiris, though more often as Horus. Regarding Osiris, Bunsen shows that he was represented as at once the Son and Husband of his mother, and actually bore as one of his titles of honor the name “Husband of the Mother.” (Bunsen, Vol. i., pp. 438, 439) This serves to identify Osiris with Ninus who married his own mother. There are many strong proofs that Osiris was Nimrod or Ninus. In some of his forms Osiris was represented clothed in a leopard’s skin; and as it is a principle in every religion that the high priest wears the insignia of the god whom he serves, the Egyptian high priest wore a leopard’s skin when officiating on all important occasions. This article of apparel was intended to commemorate some outstanding event in connection with the god Osiris; for all the strange clothing and head gear of the heathen gods and priests were signs or symbols intended to convey some meaning to those who were educated to understand them — that is, to the “initiated.” We who are initiated into the mysteries of the God’s glorious plan of the Ages (Mark 4:11), have an understanding of the symbolisms of the garments of the Jewish high priests.

(27)  The name Nimrod means literally “The subduer of the leopard,” being derived from nimr “a leopard,” and rad “to subdue.” In these ancient days such significance was attached to names, as students of the Bible are aware. Nimrod’s name, therefore, implied that his fame as a hunter rested mainly on the fact that he had discovered the art of training the leopard to aid him in hunting the other wild beasts. A particular kind of leopard, named the cheetah, is used for hunting in India even at his day. When we find that Osiris and his priests are represented arrayed in leopard’s skins, we may be sure that the deep meaning was attached to this costume; we believe that it was intended to convey to the initiates the understanding that their god Osiris was in reality Nimrod, the renowned “Leopard-tamer.” It is well known that Nimrod or Ninus, on becoming mighty, extended his dominion, conquering Egypt, in addition to other countries.

(28)  Plutarch says there was a tradition among the Egyptians that “Osiris was black.” (De Isid, et Os., Vol. ii, p. 359) As the Egyptians were dark people themselves, the blackness of Osiris must have been more than ordinary to have called for special comment. In his book of Plates, Belzoni shows a colored drawing of the recognized figure of Osiris, which he copied from the life-size paintings on the walls in one of the tombs of the kings at Thebes. (Plate V) The face and hands of this figure are jet black. Wilkinson, also, in his 6th volume, shows a figure of Osiris which has the features of the negro; and it is significant that this negro figure of Osiris is clothed in a leopard’s skin. Professor C. Piazzi Smyth draws attention to the unmistakable negro features of the great Sphinx near the Pyramids of Gizeh, which idol is pronounced to be a representation of Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis. Horus, however, is only another form of Osiris. This, then, is further identification of Osiris with Nimrod, for Nimrod was black, being the son of Cush, whose name signifies “black.” Ham, also, was black; he is the father of all the black races.

(29)  The Ethiopians were very black, and this people were descendants of Cush. Eusebius says: “Chs was he from whom came the Ethiopians.” (Chronicon, Vol. ii, p. 109) Josephus says the same. In the original of Jeremiah 13:23, the word “Ethiopian” reads “Cushite,” — “Can the Cushite change his skin, or the leopard his spots?” — See also Genesis 2:13, margin.

Nimrod’s Death the Foundational Theme
of Heathen Religions

(30)  There are many more proofs of the identification of the Egyptian god Osiris with the Babylonian Nimrod, but those we have mentioned will suffice for our present purpose, namely, to gain information as to the manner of Nimrod’s death; for the account of the death of Osiris is well known. Osiris met with a violent death, and that violent death of Osiris was the central theme of the whole idolatry of Egypt. If Osiris was Nimrod, as we have seen reason to believe, that violent death of Osiris which the Egyptians so pathetically deplored in their annual festivals, was just the death of Nimrod.

(31)  The account of the death of Osiris as given in the Egyptian Book of the Dead (a copy of which is frequently found entombed with mummies), is as follows: While Osiris was absent on a certain occasion, his enemy, who was named Sem, entered into a conspiracy with 72 of the leading men of Egypt to put Osiris to death. The plot succeeded. Osiris was slain, and his body was torn into 14 pieces which were scattered throughout the country. Isis greatly lamented her husband’s death, and searched about for the pieces of his body. Whenever she discovered a piece, she buried it and erected a shrine over it.

The Patriarch Shem, and his Godly Influence in the World

(32)  Wilkinson shows (Vol. v, p. 17) that Sem was one of the names of the primitive Egyptian Hercules, who was said to have, by the power of God, fought and overcome the giants who had rebelled against heaven. In plain language, this mythical tale simply means that the Hercules Sem or Shem (see Luke 3:36), the great opponent of idolatry, was enabled by the power or spirit of God to so convince the tribunal of 72 supreme Judges of Egypt of the enormity of the offence of Osiris or Nimrod, as to persuade them to condemn and put that “mighty one” or giant to death and to send parts of his dismembered body to various cities as a solemn declaration in their name, that “whosoever follows the example of Nimrod (Osiris) shall meet with a like penalty.” In following this course Shem was acting according to a recognized judicial custom, instances of which are found in the Scriptures. — See Judges 19:29; and 1 Samuel 11:7.

(33)  Afterwards, the upholders of the idolatrous religious system of Egypt stigmatized the leader of the “conspiracy” ad Typho, or the “Evil One.” One of the most noted names by which Typho was called, was Seth. (Epiphanius, Adv. Hoeres, lib. iii) The names Seth and Shem are synonymous, both alike signifying “The appointed one.”

(34)  This persuasive power of Shem, by which he caused the great Nimrod to be condemned to death, was symbolized by the tusks of a wild boar. We read in Mythology that the god Adonis perished by the tusks of a wild boar. Now Adonis is identical with the god Tammuz, and Tammuz with Osiris. (Kitto’s Illustrated Commentary, Vol. iv., p. 141; Wilkinson’s Egyptians, Vol. v, p. 3) In Egypt, the pig was the symbol of evil; and as the horn is the ancient symbol of power, being so recognized in Scriptures, the tusks in the mouth of the male pig signifies that it was by the “power of his mouth” that the evil one, Seth, caused Adonis (Osiris) to be put to death. In memory of this deed, the peoples of many countries have caused countless boars to lose their heads in sacrifice to the outraged god. This explains why the boar’s or pig’s head is even to this day a recognized dish at the Christmas dinner in Britain, though the reason for the custom has long been forgotten. In India, a demon with a “boar’s face” is said to have gained such power through his devotions, that he oppressed the “devotees” of worshipers of the gods, who had to hide themselves. (Moor’s Pantheon, p. 19) Even in Japan there seems to be a similar myth.

(35)  Thus the righteous Shem, blessed by Yahweh, has been stigmatized and misrepresented in all the heathen religions of the world; while the idolatrous Nimrod who led men away from the true God, and who was justly condemned to death because of his evil deeds, has been exalted to the status of a god himself. This turning of things upside down, however, will not stand, for Yahweh will soon vindicate himself on behalf of his righteous servants.

(36)  We are reminded here of what the Egyptian historian Manetho wrote regarding the builders of the Great Pyramid: “There came up from the East, in a strange manner, men of an ignoble race, who had the confidence to invade our country, and easily subdued it by their power without a battle. All this invading nation was styled Hyksos — that is, Shepherd Kings.” He adds that this people afterwards departed for Judea and built there a city named Jerusalem. The head of these Shepherd Kings has been recognized as the patriarch Shem, and Shem as Melchizedec, king of Salem. (Hebrew 7:1,2) It is certainly quite in keeping with the exalted methods of this “king of peace” that he subdued the Egyptians without a battle, persuading them only by the spirit or power of God to close their idolatrous temples and do his bidding. (See Great Pyramid Passages, Vol. i, pars. 4-6) It shows how wonderful was the godly influence which this venerable king and “priest of the most high God” exercised in the early stages of the “present evil world.” He was indeed a fit type of Christ in the Millennial Age, whom God swore would be a “Priest forever after the order of Melchizedec.” (Psalm 110:4) In face of such great power for righteousness, one can see how the iniquity instigated by Satan, the “god of this world,” would require to be very warily conducted. Hence the term “mystery” or “secret,” of iniquity.

The False “Seed of the Woman”

(37)  When the mighty Nimrod was violently put to death in the midst of his career, great indeed must have been the lamentation among his followers. Semiramis would, naturally, experience the greatest grief and loss. She had shared with him his kingdom and glory, but now all this honor had suddenly come to an end. Semiramis, however, was a woman of unbounded ambition, and she by no means intended to quietly step aside without a bid for fame on her own account. That she succeeded in making a name for herself is fully attested by the pages of ancient history. A most daring suggestion was advanced which she seized upon and resolutely carried out — namely, that she would claim that her dead son was none other than the promised “seed of the woman” (Genesis 3:15) who had been destined to bruise the serpent’s head, and who, in doing so, was to have his own heel bruised! Formerly her son had been honored as the mighty hunter and benefactor of the world; but though he was no dead she would declare that he had risen and had been deified, and thus have him worshiped as a god!

(38)  We say that this bold scheme was suggested to Semiramis, for who could have instigated such an imposition except the ‘father of lies’? (John 8:44) That “old serpent,” Satan (Revelation 12:9), caused the fall of mankind through his lying suggestion to Eve (Genesis 3:1-6), and he now attempted to frustrate Yahweh’s glorious plan of redemption by introducing a false Messiah, a lying counterfeit of the true. In consequence of this the whole world has been led astray, and few indeed have had the privilege of knowing Yahweh and Jesus the Messiah whom He sent. (Revelation 12:9; John 17:3,6,14,16) Only those who have been initiated into the mystery of God by means of the enlightening action of the holy spirit, have been able to discern the true Messiah. (Matthew 16:15-17; See our publication: Understanding Kingdom Mysteries) We are rejoiced to know that the time is not now far distant when the poor deceived world will have its eyes opened and recognize its true Redeemer, and when the people will shout: “Look! THIS is our God; we have waited for him, and HE will save us.” (Isaiah 25:9) Satan has taken advantage of the religious element in man, and by his blinding lies has directed the word’s worship to himself, becoming in very deed the “god of this world.” (2 Corinthians 4:4; Revelation 12:9) He had said in his heart:”I will be like the Most High,” and he sought to follow out this desire in every possible way. But he will be “cut down to the ground” in Yahweh’s due time (Isaiah 14:12-17); and Jesus Christ, who did not seek to be equal to God, but made himself of no reputation and was obedient to death, will be highly exalted and given a name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow in adoration and worship. (Philippians 2:6-11, Revised Standard Version) “Exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high,” is the principle on which God works. — See Ezekiel 21:26.

(39)  The patriarchs, and the ancient world in general, were acquainted with the story of the temptation in Eden, and they knew that the seed of the woman was ultimately to destroy the tempter. Because of this, and because of the innate wickedness of the hearts of men (Jeremiah 17:9), Satan was able to foist his counterfeit “Seed of the woman” upon the world. We know that this is so, for there is hardly a people on earth whose mythological religion does not contain reference to the “Seed” bruising the head of the serpent. Referring to this phrase of the religions of the heathen countries, Wilkinson (Vol. his p. 395) says: “The evil genius of the adversaries of the Egyptian god Horus [Osiris in another form] is frequently figured under the form of a snake, whose head he is seen piercing with a spear. The same fable occurs in the religion of India, where the malignant serpent Calyia is slain by Vishnu, in the avatar [incarnation] of Crishna. The Scandinavian deity Thor was said to have bruised the head of the great serpent with his mace. The origin of this may be readily traced to the Bible.” The Greeks, also, represented their god Apollo as slaying the serpent Pytho; and Humboldt shows that the Mexicans had the same belief concerning their god Teotl: “The serpent crushed by the great spirit Teotl, when he takes the form of one of the subaltern deities, is the genius of evil — a real Kakodaemon.” (Mexican Researches, Vol. i, p. 228) When examination is made of these various myths, it is found that in almost every case the serpent-destroying god dies as a result of injuries received in the combat, thus showing that the pagans knew it was by dying that the promised Seed was to destroy the adversary.

(40)  In the above quotation from Wilkinson, it will be noticed that he attributes to the Bible the knowledge which the pagans had of destroying the serpent as the incarnation of evil; but he no doubt means that this knowledge may be traced to the account of the temptation in Eden, which afterwards appeared in the Bible. The Bible as we have it, of course, did not begin to be written until after Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. (The accounts in Genesis appear to have been written by various ones involved, which accounts Moses later edited together into his book) Long before the Exodus the false religions of Babylonia, Egypt, and the other countries were fully set up, originating, as we have said, with Semiramis and her followers. In the midst of all this idolatry, however, Yahweh always had his faithful few — Noah, Shem, Abraham, and others being specially mentioned. It was because the worship of the false Messiah was in full operation in Egypt and in the other countries, that Yahweh repeatedly warned his people, the Jewish nation, against following them. Bowing down or serving these idols was in reality worship of the dead, which worship actually went to the demons, the prince of whom is Satan. (Deuteronomy 32:17; 1 Corinthians 10:20) These images enslaved the minds of those who served them, giving them a seeming actuality to beings who did not exist; for the “gods” whom they represented were in their graves, and are still waiting for the resurrection in the Millennial reign of Christ. (Psalm 146:3,4; John 5:28,29; Revelation 20:12,13) Thus the ones actually receiving the worship were Satan and his demons.

The “Image of Jealousy”

(41)  We have already mentioned the fact that the popular subjects of worship in every nation have been the “Mother and Son,” images of whom were everywhere set up. Even the Jewish nation was for a time guilty of worshiping the Babylonian goddess with the false Seed in her arms, for one of her images is evidently referred to by Ezekiel (8:3) when he says: “He put forth the form of a hand, and took me by a lock of my head; and the Spirit lifted me up between earth and Heaven, and brought me in the visions of God to Jerusalem, to the door of the gate of the inner [court] that looks toward the north; where was the seat of the image of jealousy, which provokes to jealousy.” This image of the “Mother and Son,” erected as the result of the jealousy of Satan against the coming true Seed of the woman, provoked God to jealousy because it misdirected the devotion of His people, to whom He had said: “You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourselves an idol, nor any image of anything that is in the heavens above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: you shall not bow yourself down to them, nor serve them, for I, Yahweh your God, am a jealous God.” (Exodus 20:3-5) In Egypt the “Mother and Son” were worshiped as Isis and Osiris, whose very names signify “the woman” and “the Seed”; for Isis is the Greek form of H’isha — the woman; and Osiris is read on the Egyptian monuments He-siri — the seed.

The “Deification” of Nimrod

(42)  The mythical story in Egypt of the deification of Nimrod by Semiramis is to the effect that Isis, who was a great enchantress and had much knowledge of “magical ceremonies,” instructed Horus and a number of his “followers” to perform a series of operations in connection with the burial of his father, which had the effect of raising Osiris from the dead, and of establishing him as king of Amenti, i.e., the “Hidden Place,” or the other world (Fourth Sallier Papyrus in the British Museum. — Although Horus was the son of Osiris, he was merely another form of Osiris himself, being a new incarnation of that god).

(43)  Thus, by following Satan’s lie, that the dead are not dead (Genesis 3:4), Semiramis and her deluded followers caused others to believe that Nimrod was not now dead, but that he had been resurrected, and had become a god and should be reverenced as such. But it is evident that if this advanced form of idolatry was to be become established, it was indispensable that it should be inaugurated in secret, and he operated with extreme caution; for the terror of execution, lately inflicted on one so mighty as Nimrod, was too real to be ignored. This, then, was the beginning of that iniquitous system of “Mystery” which has been so far-reaching in its desolating effects, and which the Lord used as a type of that still greater “desolating abomination,” the mystic “Babylon the Great” spoken of in the book of Revelation.

(44)  The very nature of the “Mysteries” gave great facilities for imposing on the senses of those who were being “initiated.” It is well known that magical arts were invented by the Chaldeans. Epiphanius, after considering the evidences open in his day, pronounced it as his opinion that it was “Nimrod that established the sciences of magic and astronomy.” (Adv. Hoeres, lib. 1, tom. i, Vol. i, p. 7 c) All the fertile resources of magic, therefore, were employed by Semiramis and her intimate followers, to give color to the lying deceptions of those Mysteries of which she was the originator. But notwithstanding all the care and precautions of the conductors of these ceremonies, enough has leaked out to enable us to gain a clear insight into their character.

(45)  Candidates for initiation were made to pass through the ordeal of the confessional, and were required to swear by binding oaths to maintain the secrecy of the system they were desirous of entering. After thus surrendering themselves implicitly to the priests, they were anointed with “magical ointments” which introduced into their bodily systems such drugs as tended to excite their imaginations and add to the power of the indispensable intoxicating drinks, that they might be prepared for the visions and revelations that were about to be made known to them. Wilkinson, describing the experiences of those undergoing the process of initiation, says: “Strange and amazing objects presented themselves. Sometimes the place they were in seemed to shake around them; sometimes it appeared bright and resplendent with light and radiant fire, and then again covered with black darkness, sometimes thunder and lightning, sometimes fearful noises and bellows, sometimes terrible apparitions astonished the trembling spectators.” (Egyptians, Vol. v, p. 326) Then, at last, the great hidden god was revealed to them in such a manner as to allay their fears and call forth their admiration and blind affections. It was easy for those who controlled the Mysteries, having discovered scientific secrets which they jealously preserved in their own exclusive keeping, to give the ignorant initiates what might seem ocular demonstrations that Nimrod who had been slain, and for whom such lamentations had been made, was again alive, and now encompassed with heavenly glory. Thus the whole system of the secret “Mysteries” of Babylon introduced by the help of magic (sham miracles), was intended to glorify a dead man; and when once the worship of one dead man was established, the worship of many more was sure to follow.

(46)  In this way Nimrod became the “father of the gods,” being said to be the first of the “deified mortals.” As such he was worshiped under the title of Kronos and Saturn. Saturn was the god of the Mysteries, the name itself signifying “the Hidden one.” He was revealed to the initiated, but hidden to all others.

The Identity of the Greek God Bacchus

(47)  Another of the names under which the deified Nimrod received honor was Bacchus. In Greece, Bacchus was symbolically represented by a spotted fawn, which animal was intended in the figurative language of the Mysteries to covertly identify Bacchus with Nimrod. The name of the fawn in Greece was “Nebros,” which signifies “the spotted one,” while the name of Nimrod, as known to the Greeks, was “Nebrod,” and is so translated in the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures — i.e., the Septuagint. It will be remembered that Nimrod gained much of his success as a hunter by training the leopard to assist him in the chase. The skin of the fawn was intended to suggest the spotted leopard. The custom of wearing the skin of fawn appears to have been imported from Assyria direct, for some sculptures excavated in Nineveh show a god bearing a spotted fawn in his arm, in such a way as to indicate that the animal is to be regarded as a symbol. (Vaux’s Nineveh and Persepolis, chap. viii, p. 233) Leopards were employed to draw the car of Bacchus; and he himself was represented clothed with a leopard’s skin as were also his priests, although sometimes the skin of the fawn was substituted.

(48)  The Greek Bacchus and his priesthood, therefore, were in this respect similar to the Egyptian Osiris and priesthood. Herodotus, the father of history, always speaks of Osiris as being Bacchus (lib.ii, cap. 42), and so does Diodorus, who says: “Orpheus introduced from Egypt the greatest part of the mystical ceremonies, the orgies that celebrate the wanderings of Ceres, and the whole fable of the shades below. The rites of Osiris and Bacchus are the same; those of Isis and Ceres exactly resemble each other, except in name.” (Bibliotheca, lib. i, b. 9) This is an additional proof that Bacchus and Nimrod are the same, for we have already seen that Osiris was Nimrod.

(49)  The ivy, so conspicuous in all Bacchanalian celebrations, was an express symbol of Nimrod. The Greek word for ivy is “Kissos”; and Kissos was one of the titles of Bacchus. (Pausanias, Attica, cap. 31, p. 78) Now, the name of the descendants of Cush was pronounced in Greece “Kissioi.” (Strabo, lib. xv, p. 691) The ivy branch carried by the votaries of Bacchus, therefore, signified to the initiated that Bacchus was the “branch of Cush” — i.e., Nimrod, the son of Cush. This also accounts for one of the titles of the Greek god Apollo — “Kisseus Apollos.” It serves to identify Apollo with Nimrod (among other proofs), meaning literally “The Cushite Apollo.”

(50)  From Anacreaon (p. 296) we learn that another of the titles of Bacchus was “Aithiopais,” which means “The son of Aethiops.” We have already pointed out that the Ethiopians were descendants of Cush, and therefore Aethiops must have been Cush himself. — See Habakkuk 3:7, KJV margin.

(51)  The literal meaning of the name Bacchus is “the lamented one,” being derived from Bakhah “to weep” or “lament.” Hesychius (p. 179) says that among the Phoenicians “Bacchos means weeping.” The Hebrew word used in the Bible for weeping and lamenting is Baca, or Bakah. (See Psalm 84:6, where the word Baca appears untranslated in the King James– “valley of Baca,” should be read “valley of weeping.”– see Young’s Literal Translation) On certain mystical Bacchanalian festivals a spotted fawn was torn in pieces, and great lamentations were made. Photius tells us the significance of this ceremony: “The tearing in pieces of the nebroi [or spotted fawns] was an imitation of the suffering in the case of Dionysus” or Bacchus. (Photius, Lexcicon, pars. i, p. 291) Thus the great lamentations which followed the violent death of Nimrod (Nebrod), when his body was torn into 14 pieces by the judges of Egypt, was annually commemorated by the various nations. The backsliding women of Israel wept for the death of the false messiah under that name of Tammuz, in memory of the wailing of Semiramis for the death of Nimrod: Ezekiel 8:13,14, reads:” He said also to me, You shall again see yet other great abominations which they do. Then he brought me to the door of the gate of Yahweh’s house which was toward the north; and see, there sat the women weeping for Tammuz.” It is significant that these women sat at the north gate, the same place as the seat of the “image of jealousy” mentioned in verse 3. Tammuz is identified with Osiris, and is therefore the same as Bacchus. — Wilkinson’s Egyptians, Vol. v, b. 3,; c. xiii, p. 10

(52)  When Jesus, the true Messiah and Savior of the world, was being lead to death, we read that the women “bewailed and lamented him.” But Jesus rebuked them and said: “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children.” — Luke 23:27,28.

(53)  The reason why Bacchus is commonly understood to be the god of wine, drunkenness and revelry, is because of the effect which the mysterious beverages and ointments had upon his devotees. The uninitiated merely saw the after effects, but did not understand the true import of the Bacchanalian orgies, which were claimed to be for “the purification of souls.” (Servius, in Georg., lib. i, Vol. ii, p. 197) The “elevating” effect which the process of anointing, etc., had upon the initiates of the false religions, is manifestly a miserable counterfeit of the godly joy experienced by those who, on being anointed with the holy spirit, gain an understanding of the glorious truth as it shines in the face of Jesus Christ. (1 Corinthians 2:9-16) The apostle says: “Don’t be drunken with wine, in which is an abandoned life, but be filled with the Spirit, speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing and making melody with your heart to Yahweh.” To the worldly, the exhilarating and joyful effect which the holy spirit has upon those who newly come into the light of God’s truth seems to be the result of drunkenness, or due to insanity. Many of us have had the experience of being thus misjudged. So also were the members of the early church at Pentecost misrepresented, some of the bystanders mockingly saying: “These men are full of new wine.” (Acts 2:1-18) But we care nothing for this, because we know that “the natural man does not receive the things of the spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him. Neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.” — 1 Corinthians 2:14.

(54)  Not only was the anointing of the holy spirit counterfeited by the false religions, but nearly every virtue and exalted office was ascribed to the false savior of the world that belongs to Jesus Christ. Without doubt this is the reason why Satan, the “god of this world,” (2 Corinthians 4:4) by counterfeiting the truth as nearly as possible, has had so great hold upon the hearts of mankind. (Revelation 12:9) The apostle says: “The whole world lies in the wicked one.” (1 John 5:19) We know that the great Papal system, well named Satan’s Masterpiece, has been a wonderful counterfeit of the glorious Millennial reign of Messiah; and now we see why it is considered a leading organ of “Babylon the Great,” as this Greater Babylon is the antitype of the iniquitous system which originated in Babylon of old. Just as Satan tried to frustrate Yahweh’s plan of redemption, by forestalling the Millennial reign of Christ with his false Papal Millennium, during which Popes have successively reigned as king of kings, and lord of lords; so he also sought to becloud the purpose of God by forestalling the advent of Jesus Christ, by bringing in his false Messiah. It was claimed that the death of Osiris (that is, of Nimrod) was sacrificial, submitted to for the benefit of the world.

Osiris the False Savior

(55)  The monuments of Egypt show that the worship of Osiris dates from the earliest times, and that he was regarded as the “god-man who suffered, died, rose again, and reigned eternally in heaven.” He was the “King of eternity, lord of the everlastingness, the prince of gods and men, the god of gods, king of kings, lord or lords, prince of princes, the governor of the world, whose existence is everlasting.” (Papyrus of Ani, Plate I, in the British Museum) Osiris was the god who made men and women to rise from the dead, and bestowed upon them everlasting life. He was the resurrection itself. — Guide to the Egyptian Collection in the British Museum, p. 139.

(56)  We have already seen that, after the death and mutilation of the body of Osiris, the man-god of Egypt, by Seth (Shem), Horus the son of Osiris, assisted by a number of beings who were called the “followers of Horus,” performed a series of magical rites whereby the rejoining of the limbs of the god was effected, and he revived. The Egyptians argued: “Certain ceremonies were performed by Horus on the body of Osiris, and he was mummified, and as a result he rose to everlasting life; we therefore will have the same ceremonies performed over our dead bodies, that we also may live again.” This seemed to have been the reasoning which originated the practice of mummification. The Egyptians firmly believed that if the body was not preserved after death future life was impossible. They therefore endeavored above all things to insure that their mummies would have perfect protection, spending large sums of money on intricate tombs, etc., so that it may truthfully be said that this people expended more upon the dead than upon the living. It demonstrates how “void of judgment” they were, and how deceived by Satan; for how could the preservation of their poor bodies secure for them a future life! We are reminded of the apostle Paul’s ridicule of some who were evidently arguing like the Egyptians: “You fool, you are not sowing that body that is to be!”

(57)  It is important to notice that in their elaborate religious system, the idea of repentance never entered the minds of the Egyptians. With them the commission of sin was regarded merely as a breach of the ritual law of the community, and could be atoned for by certain payments, after which the law breaker considered himself free from all obligation, real or moral. In the Coptic, which is the nearest to the ancient language of Egypt, there is no word for “repentance”; the translators were obliged to transfer the Greek word itself into the Coptic version of the New Testament. As all heathen religions are essentially the same, this manifests a vital difference between them and the true religion; for repentance from sins is the first step in the work of salvation, as declared by the apostle Peter when he addressed the assembled Israelites in the temple: “Repent therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out.” (Acts 3:19) The Papal Church follows the lead of its ancient type in the annulling of the need of repentance from sins, and atonement by the blood, by instituting “indulgences” and the “sacrifices of the mass.”

Origin of the Yule Log and the Christmas Tree

(58)  One of the titles of the false messiah was Baal-berith, which means “Lord of the Covenant,” and as such he is referred to in Judges 8:33: “And it came to pass, as soon as Gideon was dead, that the children of Israel turned again . . . and made Baal-berith their god.” It is now recognized that the 25th day of December, although called “Christmas-day,” is not the true day of the birth of our Lord Jesus. The beginning of October is more nearly correct for his birth as a man. But the 25th day of December was originally observed by heathen countries far and wide, in honor of the supposed birth of their false messiah (Wilkinson’s Egyptians, Vol. iv, p. 405); and it was in order to conciliate them, and to swell the number of nominal adherents of Christianity (so called), that the same festive day was adopted by the apostate church, giving it only the name of Christ. The Christmas tree so common at this day, was equally common in pagan Rome and pagan Egypt. This is the reason why Papal Rome adopted it, for there is no command in the scriptures requiring the followers of Christ to observe the day of his birth by Christmas tree celebrations. Briefly — the putting of the “Yule Log” into the fire on Christmas eve, and the appearance next morning of the Christmas tree laden with gifts, represented the consuming of the great god, who, like the log, had been cut in pieces, and his after birth in newness of life as the “Branch of God,” or the Tree that brings gifts to men. The Egyptians used the palm for their Christmas tree, but the people of pagan Roman used the fir, because the fir tree covertly symbolized the risen god as the Baal-berith of old Babylon; for Baal-berith — “Lord of the Covenant,” differs only one letter from Baal-bereth– “Lord of the Fir tree.”

The God Saturn, and Bull Worship

(59)  The mystical symbol of Osiris was the young Apis bull or calf, Apis being another name for Saturn, the hidden one. The Apis bull was also known as Hap, which in the Egyptian language means “to conceal.” In the Chaldean language Hap means “to cover.” (Guide to the Egyptian Collection in the British Museum, p. 131) We now see why the Jewish nation made and worshiped the image of a calf soon after leaving Egypt under Moses, claiming that this was the god who had delivered them out of bondage, meaning, of course, that Osiris whom the calf represented was the god. (However, Aaron promptly stated that there was to be a feast to Yahweh — thus giving the implication that they were to use the idol of Osiris to represent Yahweh, which provoked Yahweh’s anger. — Exodus 32:1-10) A figure of the Apis bull in a covering resembling the spotted skin of the leopard, is illustrated by Col. Hamilton Smith. (Biblical Cyclopaedia, Vol. i, p. 368) Attention has already been drawn to the significance of the leopard’s skin, which identifies Osiris with Nimrod, the “subduer of the leopard.” Isis was represented by the cow, called the cow of Athor, which is well known to be a spotted cow. — Wilkinson, Vol. iv, p. 387, and Vol. vi, Plate 36.

(60)  The bull was the express symbol of Nimrod, being the hieroglyphic which showed him as the “mighty one” and “lord of the chase.” In Assyria the word for “bull” signifies also a “ruler” or “prince”; and it was for this reason that the mighty kings of Babylonia and Assyria, who succeeded and imitated Nimrod the first king, were represented by great human-headed bulls. These bulls, also, have wide expanding wings, to show that not only was the king himself a mighty one, but that he had “mighty ones” under his command. Nimrod and his followers are the mighty ones or “giants” who are spoken of in mythology as having “rebelled against heaven.” The Hebrew word for “mighty one” in Genesis 10:8 is “Gheber” (this same word is translated “giant” in Job 16:14). A synonym for Gheber is “Abir”; but “Aber,” pronounced nearly the same as Abir, is the word for “wing.” Thus, “Baal-abrin” means “Lord of the mighty ones,” while “Baal-aberin” means “lord of the wings,” or “winged one.” (The word abir occurs in Judges 5:22 — “the praisings of the mighty ones;” while abir is found in Isaiah 40:31 — “They shall mount up with wings as eagles.”) There is an allusion to the “wings” of an Assyrian king in Isaiah 8:6-8.

(61)  As the horn is the ancient symbol of power, these Assyrian bulls, though human-headed, nevertheless show horns curing around their headgear. The reason why the horn is used as a symbol of kingly authority and power appears, from certain sculptures discovered by Layard when excavating Babylon, to be directly owning to Nimrod’s prowess as a great hunter. In a woodcut in his Nineveh and Babylon, page 605, Layard shows the Assyrian Hercules (that is, “Nimrod the Giant” as he is called in the Septuagint Version of Genesis) without weapons attacking the bull. Having conquered the bull, he sets its horn on the head as a trophy of victory, an evidence of his great power in being able to overcome so strong an animal. Thus crowned he is now represented as encountering a lion, the king of the beasts. This accounts for the ancient custom among Eastern nations of kings and chiefs wearing horns on their heads as evidence of their power and authority. — Smith’s Bible Dictionary, Art. “Horn”

The Satyrs and the God Pan

(62)  In the Armenian version of the Chronicle of Eusebius, Ninus stands first in the list of Assyrian kings. This agrees with the scriptural notice of Nimrod, who is said to have been the first to become mighty, and to have had the first kingdom. According to Pherecydes, Kronos or Saturn was “the first before all others that ever wore a crown.” (Tertullian, De Corona Militis, cap. 7, Vol. ii, p. 85) Here is therefore an additional proof that Kronos or Saturn was Nimrod. It explains why the Greek Bacchus was represented as wearing horns, and why he was frequently addressed by the epithet of “Bull-horned.” (Orphic Hymns: Hymn li, To Trietericus, Greek, p. 117) Apollo, whom we have seen is likewise identified with Nimrod, is addressed in the Orphic Hymns, as the “Two-horned god.” (Hymn to Apollo) The companions of Bacchus were called Satyrs, and are said to have “danced along with him.” (Aelian Hist., p. 22) The Satyrs were horned gods; and knowing the identity of Bacchus, it is easy to see that his companions the Satyrs were really the “mighty ones” over whom Nimrod was lord. It is generally agreed that the god Pan was the head of the Satyrs. Now, Satyr is just another form of the word Satur or Saturn — “the Hidden one.” Pan was therefore the first of the Satyrs or hidden ones. When Nimrod or Osiris was put to a violent death as the result of the judicial condemnation of the 72 leading men, it produced great terror among his followers who immediately hid themselves, hence the derivation of the word pan-ic – extreme or sudden fright. Referring to the effect which the slaying of Osiris by Typho (Seth or Shem) had upon his followers, Plutarch says: “The first who knew the accident that befallen their king, were the Pans or Sayrs who lived about Chemmis; and they, immediately acquainting the people of the news, gave the first occasion to the name of Panic Terrors.” — de Isid. s. 13

Devil Worship

(63)  It is from the name Kronos that the English word “crown” is derived; and the familiar spiked crown which adorns the heads of European monarchs still conveys the idea of the horns of the ancient Eastern kings. Plutarch says that “the Romans looked upon Kronos as a subterranean and infernal god.” (Vol. ii., p. 266) In Ausonius, also, we read that Saturn is not among the celestial, but the infernal gods.” (Ecolog. i, p. 156) Pluto, also, is called the “god of hell”; and this name has the same significance as Saturn, meaning “the Hidden one”; for Pluto is derived from Lut “to hide,” which with the Egyptian definite article prefixed becomes “P’Lut.” Both Wilkinson (Vol. iv, p. 63), and Bunsen (Vol. i, pp. 431, 432) show that Osiris in Egypt was the “king of hades,” or Pluto. Hades, as has been shown (See: Hope of Life After Death), is the “hidden state.” Actually, however, Pluto or Saturn was none other than the incarnation of the Devil, who hid himself under the disguise of the serpent when he caused the fall of man in the garden of Eden, and who has hidden himself from the world ever since under his refuge of lies. (Genesis 3:1-5; Revelation 12:9; John 8:44; Isaiah 28:17) It is curious that the popular representation of the devil, with the horns, hoofs and tail, is exactly the appearance of the black Nimrod when he is depicted in the sculpture encountering the lion; for in that hieroglyph he wears not only the two horns of the bull over which he had previously gained victory, but its hind legs and tail as well! “Auld Hornie” is the popular name by which the Devil was known in Scotland in the older days. The Satyrs, also, were half animals, having the hind legs and tail of the goat in addition to the horns. The connection of the goat-like Satyrs with the Devil is borne out by the Hebrew word sa’yr. This Hebrew word is translated in the King James Version as he-goat [sa’yr] for the sin-offering”; as devils in Leviticus 17:7 – “And they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils” [sa’yr]; and as satyrs in Isaiah 13:21: “Babylon . . . shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah . . . and satyrs [sa’yr] shall dance there.”

(64)  The system of the “mysteries” demanded that all its ritual, etc., should be kept carefully secret. Everything in connection with them was symbolical and had a hidden meaning, and the initiates were not allowed on pain of death to divulge their real nature. Herodotus, who was initiated in the mysteries of Egypt, makes this apparent when he refers to the goat-like appearance of the god Pan. He says: “It is not that they [the initiates] believe he [Pan] really had that form; they think him like the other gods; but the reason [of his goat-like appearance] being connected with religion, I am not at liberty to explain it.” (Birch’s Wilkinson, Vol. iii, p. 186) The “hidden things of darkness,” however, are now being made manifest in this enlightening day (the beginning of the Millennium), and we know that the mystic reason for the goat part of the Satyrs is connected with their panic and their sudden flight to hide themselves on hearing of the violent death of their chief; for “Berkha,” the word for “fugitive,” signifies also “he goat.” One of the epithets of the god Pan, the head of the Satyrs, was Capricornus, which means “goat-horned.”

Origin of Sun and Fire Worship

(65)  The Chaldean name for Nimrod, the son of Semiramis, was Zero-ashta, from zero “the seed,” and ashta “the woman.” But the word ashta also means “the fire,” so that Zero-ashta, “the seed of the woman,” became Zeroastes or Zoroaster, the well known name of the head of the fire worshipers. In general history the Zoroaster of Bactria is most frequently referred to; but the voice of antiquity is clear and distinct to the effect that the first and great Zoroaster was an Assyrian or Chaldean, and that he was the founder of the idolatrous system of Babylon, and therefore Nimrod. (Suidas, Tom. i, p. 1133) After his death the deified Nimrod was fabled to have been “born from the fire” — Zero-ashta, the “seed of the fire” — and as such he was revered as the great sun-god Baal. Theophilus of Antioch informs us that Kronos, which as we have seen was one of the titles of the deified Nimrod, was in the East worshiped under the names of Bel and Bal. — Clericus, De Philosophia Orientali, lib. i, sect. ii, cap. 37

(66)  Nimrod was the first Babylonian king, and therefore the title Molech is applied to him, for “Molech” means “king.” We thus perceive why the Scriptures indicate Molech (or Moloch) to be the terrible god of fire, the earthly representative of Baal the sun god. In Jeremiah 32:35, we read: “And they built the high places of Baal, which are in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to cause their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire to Molech; which I did not command them, neither did it come into my mind, that they should do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin.” It was claimed that the act of passing through the fire was for the purpose of purifying, and this probably reconciled the parents who sacrificed their children to Molech. They were under the delusion that the fire that consumed little ones also perfected them, and made them meet for the future life. The god Tammuz, who is identified with Nimrod, and for whom the children of Israel lamented annually. (Ezekiel 8:14), is really connected with fire worship and with the thought of purification therefrom, for the name Tammuz is derived from tam, “to perfect,” and muz, “to burn” — to make perfect by burning. This, no doubt, is the origin of the imaginary place called Purgatory, the fire of which is supposed by Papacy to be necessary to perfect men’s souls, and to purge away the sins they carry with them into the unseen world! The error, of course, naturally arose through credulous belief in Satan’s lie at the beginning, namely, that there is no real death, but that the soul is independent and immortal, and continues to live in the spirit world after the death of the body. (See Hope of Life After Death) Those who believe the truth of God are shielded from so great an error, and know that the dead will remain in their graves until the glorious resurrection day. How deceived the poor world has been!

(67)  In Jeremiah 19:5,6, we read: “They have built also the high place of Baal, to burn their sons with fire for burnt offering to Baal, which I have not commanded, nor spoke; neither has it come into my mind. Therefore, behold, the days are coming, says Yahweh, that this place will no longer be called ‘Tophet,’ nor ‘The valley of the son of Hinnom,’ but the ‘The valley of slaughter.'” The name “Tophet” given to the valley of Hinnom, or Gehenna as it is called in the New Testament, is derived from toph, which in Isaiah 30:32 is translated in the King James Version as “tabrets,”, that is, drums. By the noise of drums the priests of Baal sought to drown the cries of the children who were being offered in sacrifice to the terrible Molech. Because of this abomination Yahweh cursed the valley of Hinnom, and in recognition of that curse Jesus spoke of the valley as figuratively representing the symbolical “lake of fire and brimstone,” the second death, into which Satan and all who follow him will be cast at the end of the Millennial reign of Christ.

(68)  This retribution upon Satan, the author of the cruel worship of Molech, seems to be foretold in Isaiah 30:27-33 under cover of the Assyrian king Nimrod, whom we have seen was the direct representative of the Devil. The passage reads: “Behold, the name of Yahweh comes from far, burning with his anger, and the burden thereof is heavy; his lips are full of indignation, and his tongue as a devouring fire . . . For through the voice of Yahweh the Assyrian will be beaten down, who struck with a rod . . . for Tophet [the valley of Hinnom or Gehenna] is ordained of old; yes, for the king it is prepared; he has made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of Yahweh, like a stream of brimstone, does ignite it.”

(69)  Just as the valley of Gehenna, which runs along the south side of Jerusalem, is used in the Scriptures as a symbol of the second death from which there will not be a resurrection, so the valley of Jehoshaphat or Kedron, which runs along the east side of the city, is used as symbol of the first or Adamic death, from which a resurrection is assured because of the ransom sacrifice of Jesus Christ. The Jews, and also the Mohammedans, greatly desire to be buried in this valley, for they believe that the resurrection and final judgment will take place there. (See Joel 3:1,2,12-14) The valley of Jehoshaphat is probably the “valley of dry bones” referred to by Ezekiel. — Chapter 37.

(70)  The story of the trial of the prophets of Baal by Elijah (1 Kings 18:17-40) indicates how firmly established the worship of Baal was at that time in Israel. Elijah came boldly forward and cried: “How long will you limp upon two opinions? If Yahweh is God, follow him; but if Baal [the Lord], then follow him.” The test proposed by Elijah as to who was the true God, Yahweh, or Baal [the Lord], was to be an answer by fire; and the people agreed that this would be a proper test because Baal was the sun or fire god, and what could be more reasonable than to expect an answer by fire from him? The test vindicated the name of Yahweh, and the 450 priests of Baal were slain. Elijah’s fearless action in thus ridding the land of Baal worshipers was one of incalculable blessing to the people. The worship of Baal was an even more horrible religion than is implied by presented children as burnt offerings to him; for just as it was required by the Mosaic law that the priests should eat of part of the animals offered by the sacrifice by the people (see Numbers 18:9,10), so the priests of Baal ate part of the human sacrifices offered to their fire god Molech — The Lord (Baal) King! This shows the true derivation of the word given in the English language to the devours of human flesh, for the Chaldean word for “the priests” is cahna, so that Chana-Bal, that is, “priest of Baal [the Lord],” became cannibal. It is common knowledge that the priests of the sun worshipers of ancient Mexico were cannibals.

(71)  How rejoiced the poor groaning creation will be when Christ, the true “Sun of Righteousness,” will arise with healing in his wings! Malachi’s allusion to the “wings” of the sun is evidently derived from the well known symbol of the sun god in Egypt and Assyria. Above the doors of the ancient temples and tombs in these countries, there is usually to be seen a representation of the sun god, in the form of a round disc with wide spread wings.

(72)  Along with the sun as the great fire god, the serpent was connected. Owen says: “In the Mythology of the primitive world, the serpent is universally the symbol of the sun.” (Own, apud Davie’s Druids, in note, p. 437) In Egypt the commonest sign for the sun, or sun god, is a disc with a serpent around it. (Bunsen, Hieroglyphics, Vol. i, p. 497) The original reason for the connection of the serpent with the sun appears to have been that, as the physical world receives its light from the sun, so the serpent was held to have been the great enlightener of good and evil. This, of course, like all idolatry, is an absolute perversion of the truth; but it serves to identify the sun god with Satan. In Revelation 12:3, Satan is called a “great read dragon,” or “fiery serpent.” (see Diaglott, and compare with verse 9) Pausanius informs us that “the dragon with the Greeks was only a large snake.” — lib. ii, Corinthiaca, cap. 28, p. 175.

Semiramis Worshiped Under Various Names

(73)  Just as Nimrod was regarded as the sun, and was given the title Baal, or “lord of heaven” (for the word Baal means lord), so Semiramis, when she was likewise “deified,” received worship as the Moon, the “Queen of heaven.” Now, according to Athenagoras and Lucian, Semiramis was worshiped as Astarte, the Syrian goddess. (Legatio, Vol. ii, p. 179, De Dea Syria, Vol. iii, p. 382) This Syrian goddess was also known as Ishtar from which the word Easter is derived. (See 1912 Watch Tower, 144) Smith’s Bible Dictionary, under the article “Ashtoreth,” says: “From the connection of this goddess with Baal or Bel we should naturally conclude that she would be found in the Assyrian Pantheon, and in fact the name Ishtar appears to be clearly identified in the list of the great gods of Assyria. There is no reason to doubt that this Assyrian goddess is the Ashtoreth [or Ashtaroth] of the Old Testament and the Astarte of the Greeks and Romans . . . It is certain that the worship of Astarte became identified with that of Venus (or Aphrodite).”

(74)  Layard states that in the Syrian temple of Hierapolis, Astarte was represented standing on a lion, crowned with towers.” (Nineveh and its Remains, Vol. ii, p. 456) The name Astarte itself means “the woman that made towers,” being composed of two words: “Asht-tart.” Asht is the word for woman; and it is generally agreed that the last syllable “tart” comes from the Hebrew verb “Tr,” which means to go around,” and “to be round.” From this is derived the Greek word “turit,” and its English equivalent “turret,” a round tower. Asht-turit, therefore, which is the same as “Ashtoreth” of the Hebrew, is literally “the woman that made the tower” or encompassing wall. Ovid mentions that Semiramis was currently believed to have “surrounded Babylon with a wall of brick.” (Ovid, Opera, Vol. iii; Fasti, iv, 219-221) But there is not need to give all the credit of building the battlements of Babylon to Semiramis; the reason why she gained the honor of fortifying the city was because she in the long run became foremost in esteem of the ancient idolaters, and thus had attributed to her every virtue and characteristic that properly belonged, or was imagined to have belonged , to her son Ninus. She was also worshiped as Rhea or Cybele, the “Mother of the gods” (Paschal, Chronicle, Vol. i, p. 65), and as such is always represented as wearing a mural or turreted crown on her head. In this respect the Ephesian Diana exactly resembled Rhea, for Diana was likewise a tower-bearing goddess. Now, the Ephesian Diana is expressly identified with Semiramis; for Semiramis is the same as the goddess Artemis, and it is well known that Artemis was Diana. (Layard, Nineveh and its Remains, Vol. ii, p. 480, note) The Roman Diana was a huntress bearing a quiver of arrows. In this character she was the complement of Nimrod “the mighty hunter.”

(75)  The universal adoration of the “deified” Semiramis under various names and titles by the Eastern nations, is prominently drawn to our attention in Acts 19:23-41. “Great is Diana of the Ephesians” the multitude shouted, “whom all Asia and the world worships.” It is a remarkable fact that this great goddess is even now worshiped in our very midst in the person of the Papal “Queen of heaven,” the so-called “Virgin Mary,” whose image is set up everywhere! A favorite image of the Romish Virgin Marry shows her standing on a large sphere, which is colored blue, and spangled with stars. On her head rests a heavy gold crown. The globe is intended to symbolize the blue vault of heaven, while the crowned woman herself, apparently, represents the moon as the Queen of heaven, that is, Astarte or Ashtoreth. By her side she holds the child who is also crowned, and who stands on a smaller star spangled blue globe. In this connection he evidently represents the sun, the king or lord of heaven, that is, Baal (remember that the word Baal means Lord). Another familiar figure of the Papal “Mother of god” shows her standing on clouds (sometimes a sphere), one foot treading on the serpent’s head, and with the crescent of the moon at her feet. The crescent of the moon is the well known sign of Astarte or Ashtoreth, the horns of the moon’s crescent covertly suggesting her power as Queen of heaven. Papacy maintains that it was not the seed of the woman, but the woman herself, who was to bruise the head of the serpent. Regardless of the laws of grammar the apostate church renders God’s condemnation of the serpent: “She shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise her heel.” In this the goddess of “Babylon the Great” is only fashioned after her type in ancient Babylon, for though it was originally claimed that Nimrod had crushed the head of the serpent, this mother was latterly given the glory of having done this great deed. (Diodorus, Bibliotheca, lib. ii, p. 70; Smith’s Classical Dictionary, p. 320) Although in the first instance Semiramis derived her exalted position from the Divine character attributed to the child in her arms, she ultimately practically eclipsed her son. So also in the Papal church it is the Madonna who receives all the adoration, and to whom petitions are generally addressed. What a satire, to think that the poor world has been so blinded by Satan, that it has been deceived into worshiping a woman who is nonexistent! Well did Yahweh forbid his people to make and bow down to images, “which cannot see, nor hear, nor know.” (Daniel 5:23; Psalm 115:4-8) It would be difficult to understand how so great a delusion could have become universal, were it not that we are aware that Satan is the “god of this world,” and that along with him are legions of demons, who have sought to impersonate the dead in various ways, bolstering up Satan’s lie that there is no death. (Genesis 3:4) In Psalm 106:37 we are told that the Jews, in serving Baal or Molech, had really “sacrificed their sons and their daughters to demons,” and in Psalm 96:5 we read: “For all the gods of the nations are demons.” (Septuagint version) The apostle Paul, in 1 Corinthians 10:20, says: “But I say, that the things which the nations sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons.”

Origin of Star Worship

(76)  The worship of the stars by the idolatrous nations was as prevalent as the worship of the sun and moon. Mythology identifies Nimrod and Semiramis with certain constellations. From Persian records we are expressly assured that Nimrod, after his death, was “deified” by the name of Orion, the mighty hunter, and “placed among the stars.” (Paschal Chronicle, tom. i, p. 64) The constellation Virgo is admitted by the most learned astronomers to have been dedicated to Ceres, who as we have seen was identical to the Egyptian Isis, and was therefore the same as Semiramis the Babylonian goddess. (Dr. John Hill, in his Urania; and Mr. A. Jamieson, in his Celestial Atlas. See Landseer’s Sabean Researches, p. 201.) All the signs of the Zodiac, and the other constellations and stars were associated with various gods and incidents in connection with them, by Chaldean astrologers. Yahweh especially commanded the Israelites to on no account worship images, the sun or moon, or the stars, because of the degrading influence it would have upon them, even as it had upon the heathen nations. In Deuteronomy 4:15-19, we read (World English Version): “{4:15} Take you therefore good heed to yourselves; for you saw no manner of form on the day that Yahweh spoke to you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire. {4:16} Lest you corrupt yourselves, and make yourself an engraved image in the form of any figure, the likeness of male or female, {4:17} the likeness of any animal that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged bird that flies in the sky, {4:18} the likeness of anything that creeps on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the water under the earth; {4:19} and lest you lift up your eyes to Heaven, and when you see the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of Heaven, you be drawn away and worship them, and serve them.” Yet the Jewish people frequently disregarded Yahweh’s command. In 2 Kings, chapters 22 and 23, we read how king Josiah, after having heard the words of the newly discovered book of the law of Moses, cleared the land of idolatry: “He put down the idolatrous priests . . . them also that burned incense to Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the twelve signs or constellations [i.e., the Zodiac, the invention of the Chaldeans], and to all the host of heaven.” (2 Kings 23:5, margin) This identification of their gods and goddesses with the stars by the Babylonians is a counterfeit of the true “deified mortals,” Jesus Christ and his joint-heirs; for we read in 1 Corinthians 15:41,42: “There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs from another star in glory. So also is the resurrection of the dead.”

Origin of the Fish God Dagon

(77)  Yahweh’s warning to this people not to make an image of anything in the likeness of a fish, would imply that such was possible. Professor Layard in his excavations at Nineveh discovered sculptured figures of a fish god, which he identified with Dagon, the fish god of the Philistines, who borrowed it from the Babylonians (Nineveh and Babylon, pp. 343, 350) In 1 Samuel 5:1-5, we read that the Philistines placed the captured ark of God in the house of their god Dagon. The next morning they found Dagon fallen upon his face to the earth before the ark of Yahweh. They set Dagon up in his place again; but: “when they arose early on the next morning, behold, Dagon was fallen upon his face to the ground before the ark of Yahweh, and the head of Dagon and both the palms of his hands were cut off upon the threshold; only the fishy part of Dagon was left to him. Therefore neither the priest of Dagon, nor any who came to Dagon’s house, tread on the threshold of Dagon in Ashod to this day.” (See King James Version margin) In passing we draw attention to Zephaniah 1:9: “In the same day also I will punish all those that leap over the threshold.” The Philistines leaped over the threshold on which their god Dagon had lost his head and hands; and it appears from Zephaniah that some among the Jews who had forsaken Yahweh were worshiping Dagon, and were leaping over the threshold in deference to him! Berosus, describing this fish god, says that “its body was that of a fish, but under the head of the fish was that of a man, and to its tail were joined a woman’s feet. (Cory’s frag., p. 30) From Layard’s sculptures we notice that the figure also had hands. Now, what could have suggested a peculiar combination of man and fish? And what could have induced the Babylonians to set up so strange and object in a temple to worship as a god? When we remember that the image is a hieroglyphic, that every feature of it is intended to convey to the beholder some message, or suggest some attribute concerning the god whom the image represents, we can perceive that this fish god described a man who had been in some respects like a fish. It appears that not only were Nimrod and Semiramis raised to the status of god and goddess in the Mysteries, but that as Father (Kronos) and Mother (Rhea) of the gods, they were the forerunners of numerous other “deified mortals.”

(78)  The fish god Dagon could not have represented anyone more perfectly than Ham (or possibly Noah), for did not this man live through the waters of the flood which destroyed all “in whose nostrils were the breath of life”? In this respect, then, he was like a fish, because we do not read that fish were destroyed in the deluge. (Genesis 7:21,22) Without doubt this is the origin of that mythical creature called the mermaid and the merman.

(79)  The great apostate church of the Gospel Age, true to its Babylonish origin, has actually adopted this fish god in its ritual; for the pope on certain occasions manifests by his head gear that he is the direct representative of Dagon. As it was an indispensable rule in all idolatrous religions that the high priest should wear the insignia of the god he worshiped, so the sculptures discovered by Layard show that the priests of Dagon were arrayed in clothing resembling fish. This is probably the “strange apparel” referred to in Zephaniah 1:8. Berosus tells us that in the image of Dagon the head of the man appeared under the head of the fish, while Layard points out that in the case of the priests “the head of the fish formed a mitre above that of the man, while its scaly, fan-like tail fell as a cloak behind, leaving the human limbs and feet exposed.” (Babylon and Nineveh, p. 343) We have evidence that at a later period the pagan priests dispensed with the body of the fish, and used the head alone like a cap. (Bryant, Vol. v, p. 384) The gaping jaws of the fish’s head, surmounting the head of the man, is the exact appearance of the two horned mitre of the pope, or of a Papal bishop at this day! Mr. A. Trimen, a distinguished London architect and author, found that on a certain occasion every year the Chinese Emperor, as Pontifex Maximus of his nation, wears a mitre which is the very counterpart of the Papal mitre. (Hager, on Chinese Hieroglyphics, B. xxxv, in the British Museum)

(80) Thus we see the far reaching influences of the idolatrous system set up in ancient Babylon. That “Mystery of Iniquity” has indeed deceived all the world so that, as the Scriptures truly say, the nations have been made drunken or mad. But it is possible for the followers of God and Christ to escape this deception, as “he who is spiritual discerns all things, yet he himself is discerned of no man.” The “Mystery of Godliness” cannot be comprehended by any except those who are initiated through the anointing of the holy spirit. “Eye has not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of [the natural] man, the things which God has prepared for them that love him. But God has revealed them to us by his spirit, for the spirit searches all things, yes, the deep things of God.” Let us be thankful if we dwell in the “secret place of the Most High.” It is given to very few to be allowed to know God and Jesus Christ whom he sent. We recall the words of Jesus, related in Matthew 11:25,26: “I thank you, Of Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hid these things from the wise and prudent, and have revealed them to babes. Even so, Father, for so it seemed good in your sight.” Can we be certain that we are those who are initiated in the mysteries of God? Yes, for the apostle John says: “We know that we have passed from death to life, because we love the brothers.” (1 John 3:14) “Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God; and every one who loves is begotten of God, and knows God.” — 1 John 4:7.

See also:

How Should a Christian View Thanksgiving and Christmas?

Did Satan Tell the Truth? — Genesis 2:17

Adam and Eve did die as Yahweh said that they would; they are not alive and walking around on the earth today.

But of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil you may not eat, for in the day that you eat of it, dying you shall die. — Genesis 2:17, Green’s Literal Translation.

Part of God’s covenant to Adam was that if he disobeyed, then his death process would begin, that he would be dying so that he would die. God spoke the truth. Adam is not alive today.

And the serpent said to the woman, Dying you shall not die, — Genesis 3:4, Green’s Literal Translation.

Adam and Eve died. If they did not die, we should be able to locate them somewhere on the earth today. The fact is that scripture records Adam’s death: “All the days that Adam lived were nine hundred thirty years, then he died.” (Genesis 5:5)

Of course, many believe that Satan has kept his promise to Eve by making it seem to be fulfilled in the all the various forms of immortal soul/spirit doctrines that prevail in practically all parts of the world.

Some believe that the serpent did not speak audibly, but rather by suggestion. However, it is evident from Revelation 12 and John 8:44 that the one who caused the serpent to speak (whether audibly or not) was Satan the devil, the one who as a light [Jesus was probably speaking of what many call “falling stars” — the light from a burning meteoroid] fell from heaven. — Luke 10:18.

One of Satan’s ploys is to mix some truth with a lie. Yes, the serpent, Satan, told the truth concerning their knowing both good and bad; however, he was deceptive in the way he presented this, since he presented as though it should be something to be desired.. Before Adam and Eve only knew the good, and had the prospect of living forever. Eve was convinced this knowledge of bad was something to be desired, something to make her like the elohim.

God, of course, had a knowledge of good and bad intuitively; the angels were beginning to receive the knowledge of the bad through the course of one angel who had become a liar. To what extent Satan had influenced the angels as this time, the Bible does not say. Under the background of speaking to the king of Babylon, Yahweh speaks of this king as having fallen from heaven (Isaiah 14:12), and saying in his heart: “I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; and I will sit on the mountain of congregation, in the uttermost parts of the north; I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High.” (Isaiah 14:13,14) The obvious connection to Jesus’ words as recorded in Luke 10:18 should be apparent. Evidently, the one who fell from heaven is being addressed here, as represented in the king of Babylon, as the king of Babylon was performing the works of the one who fell from heaven.