Jeremiah 31:1 At that time, says Yahweh, will I be the God of all the families of Israel, and they shall be my people.
This scripture refers back to the “time” mentioned in Jeremiah 30:24, which reads: “The fierce anger of Yahweh shall not return, until he has executed, and until he have performed the intents of his heart: in the latter days you shall understand it.”
At that time — refers to the “latter days” just spoken of in Jeremiah 30:24, specifically the time when Israel will understand. Before Israel understands, however, Yahweh’s anger will have passed. That time of understanding is in the age to come, in the days of regeneration, that Jesus spoke of. (Matthew 19:28) Today, it is still true that ‘Yahweh has poured out on Israel the spirit of deep sleep, and has closed Israel’s eyes.’ (Isaiah 6:9; 29:10; Matthew 13:14,15; John 12:39,40; Acts 20:25-27; Romans 11:7-11) However, Isaiah prophecies: “In that day [the age to come] shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out of obscurity and out of darkness.” (Isaiah 29:18) And while those of Israel who murmur in this age are kept in darkness, in that age to come, we read: “They also who err in spirit shall come to understanding, and those who murmur shall receive instruction.” — Isaiah 29:24.
“I will be the God of all the families of Israel” — Yahweh will, in that age to come, be God of all the tribes, not just the two tribes of Judah. Indeed, he will be God of all Israel who have died, since they will be raised in that day of regneration due to the application of the blood of New Covenant on their behalf. It will in that age to come that “all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, ‘There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob.” — Romans 11:26.
Jeremiah 31:2 Thus says Yahweh, The people who were left of the sword found favor in the wilderness; even Israel, when I went to cause him to rest.
This refers back to the time when Israel left Egypt, in the aftermath of the time when Israel’s sons were being killed and Pharaoh endeavored to kill the Israelites as they left Egypt (Exodus 1:16,22; 2:23; 5:21; 12:37; 14:8-12; 15:9,10; 17:8-13; Acts 13:17), and Yahweh brought Israel out of Egypt, after which they were in the wilderness for forty years. — Numbers 10:33; Deuteronomy 1:30,33; 2:7; 8:2,3,16; 12:9; Nehemiah 9:12-15; Psalms 78:14-16,23-29,52; Psalms 95:11; Psalms 105:37-43; 136:16-24; Isaiah 63:7-14; Jeremiah 2:2; Ezekiel 20:14-17; John 6:31.
Jeremiah 3:3 Yahweh appeared of old to me, [saying], Yes, I have loved you with an everlasting love: therefore with lovingkindness have I drawn you.
This begins with a declaration attributed to Israel, carrying forth the same thought of verse 2. Israel says: “Yahweh appeared of old to me.” — Deuteronomy 7:7-9; 10:15; 33:3,26; Hosea 11:1,4; Malachi 1:2; Romans 3:1,2; 9:13; 1 John 4:19.
In Jeremiah 31:3 we have a beautiful statement of Yahweh’s everlasting love for his people, Israel. How is Yahweh’s love for Israel “everlasting?” We should note that the “everlasting love” is between Yahweh and the covenant people of Yahweh, the children of Israel. Although Israel, as a whole, went into apostasy time and time again, and remains in apostasy to this day, Paul tells that “the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable.” (Romans 11:29) Thus, Paul tells that the present blindness of Israel is only temporary:
Romans 11:25 – that a hardening in part has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in,
Romans 11:26 and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, “There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob.
Romans 11:27 This is my covenant to them, When I will take away their sins.”
Romans 11:28 Concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But concerning the election, they are beloved for the fathers’ sake.”
Yes, even though God has “given them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day” (Romans 11:8), Israel is still beloved in the eyes of Yahweh “for the fathers’ sake.” Yahweh has not stopped his “everlasting love” for Israel, but Paul relates that their blindness will continue until fullness [full amount, number, plentitude, enough] of the Gentiles are come in (Romans 11:25) Then, the apostle tells us, “All Israel will be saved,” and that this will fulfill the prophecy: “There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. This is my covenant to them, When I will take away their sins.” (Romans 11:26-28) Thus, Yahweh’s love has not ceased toward Israel, for there is still that future time when Israel will receive her Savior, Jesus, and will say, “Blessed in he who comes in the name of Yahweh.” — Matthew 23:39.
Jeremiah 31:4 Again will I build you, and you shall be built, O virgin of Israel: again shall you be adorned with your tambourines, and shall go forth in the dances of those who make merry.
Again will I build you, and you shall be built – Some have claimed that this refers to the rebuilding of Jerusalem after the Israelites returned from their captivity in Babylon. However, that restoration was only temporary, whereas this prophecy goes on to say in Jeremiah 31:40, that this building “shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down any more forever. ” We know that in 70 AD Jerusalem was destroyed.
Some claim that this applies to the church, the ones called out of the world as “God’s building” (1 Corinthians 3:9) made up of “living stones.” (1 Peter 2:5) We believe that Jeremiah’s prophecy concerning the building again of Israel may possibly have a partial application antitypically, but unless one realizes this, the full application of Jeremiah’s prophecy may be lost. By saying “again,” however, this prophecy is shown to apply directly to Israel, for such an expression cannot directly apply to the building of church, for it would imply that the church itself was in need of being rebuilt after some kind of destruction. 1 Corinthians 3:9 and 1 Peter 2:5 do not refer to a rebuilding “again” of the church, but they speak of the first building of the church, which in reality is the only building of the church. The only exception that we can think of is that could possibly apply to the resurrection of the church, but we do not know of any scripture that speaks of the resurrection of the church as a building “again “of the church.
O virgin of Israel – Some have thought the “virgin” here refers to Jesus; however, Jeremiah 18:13 tells us that the “virgin of Israel has done a horrible thing.” Did Jesus ever do a horrible thing?
Actually, Jeremiah 18:13 lets us know that “virgin of Israel” is speaking figuratively of Israel as a virgin. Israel had forgotten Yahweh by burning incense to false gods, walking in the byways of the nations. –Jeremiah 18:15,16.
******More to follow, Yahweh willing.
5 Again shall you plant vineyards on the mountains of Samaria; the planters shall plant, and shall enjoy [the fruit of it]. 6 For there shall be a day, that the watchmen on the hills of Ephraim shall cry, Arise you, and let us go up to Zion to Yahweh our God. 7 For thus says Yahweh, Sing with gladness for Jacob, and shout for the chief of the nations: publish you, praise you, and say, Yahweh, save your people, the remnant of Israel. 8 Behold, I will bring them from the north country, and gather them from the uttermost parts of the earth, [and] with them the blind and the lame, the woman with child and her who travails with child together: a great company shall they return here. 9 They shall come with weeping; and with petitions will I lead them: I will cause them to walk by rivers of waters, in a straight way in which they shall not stumble; for I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my firstborn.
10 Hear the word of Yahweh, you nations, and declare it in the isles afar off; and say, He who scattered Israel will gather him, and keep him, as shepherd does his flock. 11 For Yahweh has ransomed Jacob, and redeemed him from the hand of him who was stronger than he. 12 They shall come and sing in the height of Zion, and shall flow to the goodness of Yahweh, to the grain, and to the new wine, and to the oil, and to the young of the flock and of the herd: and their soul shall be as a watered garden; and they shall not sorrow any more at all. 13 Then shall the virgin rejoice in the dance, and the young men and the old together; for I will turn their mourning into joy, and will comfort them, and make them rejoice from their sorrow. 14 I will satiate the soul of the priests with fatness, and my people shall be satisfied with my goodness, says Yahweh. 15 Thus says Yahweh: A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation, and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children; she refuses to be comforted for her children, because they are no more. 16 Thus says Yahweh: Refrain your voice from weeping, and your eyes from tears; for your work shall be rewarded, says Yahweh; and they shall come again from the land of the enemy. 17 There is hope for your latter end, says Yahweh; and [your] children shall come again to their own border.
18 I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself [thus], You have chastised me, and I was chastised, as a calf unaccustomed [to the yoke]: turn you me, and I shall be turned; for you are Yahweh my God. 19 Surely after that I was turned, I repented; and after that I was instructed, I struck on my thigh: I was ashamed, yes, even confounded, because I did bear the reproach of my youth. 20 Is Ephraim my dear son? is he a darling child? for as often as I speak against him, I do earnestly remember him still: therefore my heart yearns for him; I will surely have mercy on him, says Yahweh. 21 Set up road signs, make guideposts; set your heart toward the highway, even the way by which you went: turn again, virgin of Israel, turn again to these your cities. 22 How long will you go here and there, you backsliding daughter? for Yahweh has created a new thing in the earth: a woman shall encompass a man. 23 Thus says Yahweh of Hosts, the God of Israel, Yet again shall they use this speech in the land of Judah and in the cities of it, when I shall bring again their captivity: Yahweh bless you, habitation of righteousness, mountain of holiness. 24 Judah and all the cities of it shall dwell therein together, the farmers, and those who go about with flocks. 25 For I have satiated the weary soul, and every sorrowful soul have I replenished. 26 On this I awakened, and saw; and my sleep was sweet to me.
27 Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of animal. 28 It shall happen that, like as I have watched over them to pluck up and to break down and to overthrow and to destroy and to afflict, so will I watch over them to build and to plant, says Yahweh. 29 In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge. 30 But everyone shall die for his own iniquity: every man who eats the sour grapes, his teeth shall be set on edge. 31 Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: 32 not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they broke, although I was a husband to them, says Yahweh. 33 But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says Yahweh: I will put my law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people: 34 and they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know Yahweh; for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says Yahweh: for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more.
35 Thus says Yahweh, who gives the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, who stirs up the sea, so that the waves of it roar; Yahweh of hosts is his name: 36 If these ordinances depart from before me, says Yahweh, then the seed of Israel also shall cease from being a nation before me forever. 37 Thus says Yahweh: If heaven above can be measured, and the foundations of the earth searched out beneath, then will I also cast off all the seed of Israel for all that they have done, says Yahweh. 38 Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that the city shall be built to Yahweh from the tower of Hananel to the gate of the corner. 39 The measuring line shall go out further straight onward to the hill Gareb, and shall turn about to Goah. 40 The whole valley of the dead bodies and of the ashes, and all the fields to the brook Kidron, to the corner of the horse gate toward the east, shall be holy to Yahweh; it shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down any more forever